On Long Island and Islands
With Their Probable Significations
William Wallace Tooker
Edited, with an Introduction by
Alexander F. Chamberlain, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.
Published for the
John Jermain Memorial Library
Sag Harbor, N. Y.
G. P. Putnam's Sons
New York and London
WILLIAM WALLACE TOOKER
Ube Rnicftetbocftet fntee, Hew Bort
MARGARET OLIVIA SAGE
BENEFACTIONS ARE WORLD-WIDE
INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITOR . . . vii
SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS BY THE AUTHOR xv
THE INDIAN PLACE-NAMES ON LONG ISLAND
AND ISLANDS ADJACENT i
APPENDIX I. LIST OF ALGONKIAN NAMES
SUITABLE FOR COUNTRY HOMES, HOTELS,
CLUBS, MOTOR-BOATS, ETC. . . . 299
APPENDIX II. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CONTRIBU-
TIONS TO THE STUDY OF ALGONKIAN
NOMENCLATURE, ETC., BY WILLIAM
WALLACE TOOKER .... 303
APPENDIX III. WORKS OF OTHER WRITERS
CITED WITH MORE OR LESS FREQUENCY
IN THIS VOLUME, AND OTHER WORKS
RELATING TO THE SAME OR CONNECTED
HPHE timeliness of such historical studies as those
I represented by Mr. Tooker's Indian Place-
Names on Long Island is emphasized by the recent
burning of the Capitol at Albany, which involved
the destruction of hundreds (perhaps, thousands)
of original manuscripts and unprinted docu-
ments relating to the period of early settlement of
parts of northeastern North America by Europeans,
Dutch and English in particular. Not a few of the
sources (notably the records of land-papers and
kindred material in the office of the Secretary of
State), from which Mr. Tooker obtained the facts
enabling him to interpret accurately and beyond
all possibility of doubt many Indian place-names of
the region in question, perished irreparably in the
conflagration. Their true etymologies could be
ascertained only by the most painstaking and in-
telligent examination, by one deeply acquainted
with the speech of the Indian inhabitants, of old
deeds, boundary-descriptions, wills, etc., many of
which can never again be appealed to for the same
original purposes, since the flames have now con-
sumed them altogether. It may even happen
sometime that the extracts from certain of these
documents (no longer in existence) to be found in
the pages of Mr. Tooker's book will have to serve
as the only historical or legal evidence on record
concerning some of the matters with which they
deal. Besides the place-names themselves, these
old records often contain references to customs and
habits of both whites and Indians, notes on abor-
iginal life and activities, etc., nowhere else set
down. Incidents of hunting and fishing, methods
of capturing game, accounts of native foods, and
the like, are reported sometimes in connection
with brief descriptions of settlements, treaties,
titles to land, exchanges of property, limitations
of bounds, etc. Some of the early documents
formerly on record at Albany have been published
in the Minutes of the Executive Council of the Prov-
ince of New York (2 vols., Albany, 1910), edited by
G. V. H. Paltsits, the State Historian. Here a
number of the Long Island records are reproduced
at full length. The lists of sachems are of
especial interest. One of the most significant as-
pects of human history is the story of race-contact.
All over the globe abundant evidences of such con-
tact occur in geographical names, which are some-
times the only memorials of themselves which the
so-called "lower" races are able to transmit to the
"higher." The Red Man, however, has not been
so unfortunate, for he has influenced in many ways
the language, the economic life, and even the in-
stitutions of his conquerors and dispossessors.
The mass-contact of the English and the Indians
in North America took place first in an Algonkian
area, of which Long Island formed a part. Lin-
guistically, the Algonkian stock, although by no
means intellectually superior to their Iroquoian
neighbors, seem to have influenced more the Euro-
pean settlers and their descendants. In an article
on "Algonkian Words in American English," pub-
lished in the Journal of American Folk-Lore for
1901, and in a monograph on "The Contribution of
the American Indian to Human Civilization (Proc.
Amer. Antiq. Soc., 1902), the writer has discussed
this topic, pointing out that the contributions of the
Algonkians to the dictionary of American English
(past and present) amount to at least 200 words,
including such terms of world-wide fame as Tam-
many, mugwump, totem, etc., while the element
taken up from the Iroquoian dialects is very much
less numerous, being chiefly limited to words which
were originally place-names, but which, like Chau-
tauqua, etc., have for some reason or other become
common-places of our speech.
In so far as its place-names of Indian origin are
concerned, Long Island is completely Algonkian,
the few Iroquoian terms listed by Mr. Tooker,
such as Genissee and Swego, being due to the white
man's introduction of them from other parts of
New York State. The list of place-names re-
corded and interpreted by Mr. Tooker constitutes,
as he has said, with the exception of two rather
short vocabularies, obtained at the close of the
eighteenth century, our sole linguistic data con-
cerning the Indian inhabitants of Long Island at
the period of European settlement. It is fortunate
that we have, from a competent Algonkinist, to
use a somewhat new word, this detailed study of
nearly 500 names. For this not only the investi-
gators in the field of American Indian philology will
be grateful, but all those likewise who are inter-
ested in the phenomena of race-contact and the
problems connected with the accretion of the vo-
cabulary of modern English from foreign sources.
One interesting feature of these researches into
the origin and the history of Indian place-names
is the turning up occasionally of a word, derived
from the aboriginal tongue of the locality, which
has passed into the common every- day speech of
the English settlers, or the Dutch, as the case
may be. In discussing the name Seapoose, Mr.
Tooker chronicles just such a term. Even at the
present day, we are told, "the inlets that are
opened in the beaches on the Southside in the
towns of East and Southampton, in order that
the ocean may flow into the various ponds
and bays, or vice versa, are known as the Seapoose."
In a record of 1650, the pay for working "at the
seapoose" is stated to be three shillings per day.
In recent times the word has been applied both in
Long Island and New Jersey (in the form "sea-
puss") to the "under-tow" of the ocean. The
term seapoose, or sea-puss, is of good Algonkian
origin, as shown by the Narragansett sipoese,
Massachusetts sepuese, Long Island (Unkechaug)
seepus, "little river," from the radical sip (seep),
"river." The word seapoose or sea-puss is not to
be found in the Standard or the Century Dictionary,
but ought to be included in any comprehensive list
of Americanisms of Indian origin. "Sea-puss,"
perhaps, has a touch of folk-etymology about it.
Another term, in process of becoming an "Ameri-
canism," unless, indeed, it is from English hassock,
is recorded under Hassokey. In the early docu-
ments "Hassokie meadows," "Hassokey swamp,"
"Hassokey meadow," etc., are often mentioned;
and the name Hassock also appears frequently as
applied to similar localities in certain parts of
Long Island. The Algonkian origin of the term is
seen from the Narragansett hassucki," marsh land,"
Delaware assisku, "miry, marshy," etc. A thor-
oughgoing examination of the old records of the
settlements within the Algonkian area of north-
eastern North America would, doubtless, reveal
other contributions of the aborigines to the vocabu-
lary of their Aryan successors in the land.
The tendency of the English language to reduce
many polysyllabic words to a much briefer form is
exemplified again and again in these place-names
of Indian origin. Thus, Achabachawesuck appears
sometimes as Wesuck; Checkachagin as Choggin;
Massapeague as Marsey; Moncorum and Winecorum
as Coram or Corum; Pauquacumsuck as Quaconsuck;
Sagaponack as Sagg or Sag; Secommecock as Mecock;
Winnecomac as Comae. Remarkable in this re-
spect is Quaquanantuck, which is found as Quaquan-
tuck, Quantuck, Quaqua, Quagga, Quag, etc. On
the other hand, we learn that in 1889 the
name of the Post-Office Sagg was changed to
Among the many place-names on record as of
Indian origin, according to the early settlers of
Long Island, are some "ghost-words," as Skeat,
the English lexicographer, terms them due to mis-
takes of scribes, etc. Such, e. g., is Minaussums
for Winnecroscoms. Occasionally the white man
has deliberately altered the form or the spelling of
the aboriginal name. This is the case with Marra-
tooka, which, by way of Marrituck, goes back to
Mattituck. The white man's influence is seen also
in the introduction of names from other and kin-
dred Indian tongues, and in the "invention" or
"improvement" of such.
Thus, Ihpetonga, Kioshk, and Minissais are Od-
jibwa (Chippewa) words introduced by the late
H. R. Schoolcraft, and Kissena comes from a like
source. To Mr. G. R. Howell is due the making
of Missipaug, Minnesunk, and Nippaug.
The spelling of the Indian names, both in Dutch
and English, has varied extremely; so much, in-
deed, that the belonging of some of them together
would hardly be suspected were it not for the proof
furnished by the original records. For Setauket,
e. g., we find Setaulcott, Selasacott, and (in Dutch
Pseudo-Indian names occur, as Mr. Tooker
points out, in Hoggenoch corrupted from "Hog's
Neck," Oquenock (from "Oak Neck"), Sy asset
(from Dutch Schouts), Wainscot (a good English
word), etc., the forms of which approximate some-
times so closely real Indian words that the his-
torical records alone can settle the question of
their real origin. In "Dix's Hills" is remembered
an Indian named "Dick Pichegan, " and in quite
a number of other place-names only part of the
personal appellation (Indian or English) of some
sannup or squaw has survived. In his Preliminary
Remarks Mr. Tooker has called attention to other
interesting characteristics of some of these place-
The Indian Place-Names on Long Island, besides
serving the more scholarly and serious purposes of
the historian and the philologist, ought, and its
author has labored personally to that end, to help
strengthen the custom, now considerably in vogue,
of employing names of American Indian origin to
designate villages and towns the outgrowth of the
present day, estates and seats in the country or at
the sea-shore, camps, hotels, cottages, vessels large
and small, etc. This can so often be accomplished
with no injury to our mother-tongue and with a
proper remembrance of those who tenanted the
woods and sailed the seas before us. Much can be
done by the simple restoration of names formerly
in use. Notable examples of such restoration are
to be met with in "Sagamore Hill" (here, perhaps,
Mohannis, the sagamore himself, might well have
been remembered, as the hill really bore his name
once), perpetuated by Mr. Roosevelt, and in
" Mashimuet Park, " presented by Mrs. Sage to the
town of Sag Harbor. Finally, the editor desires
to express his pleasure in seeing preserved in
book-form the results of the careful and suggestive
studies of his friend and colleague, and in finding
them dedicated to one whose gracious benefactions
have made themselves potent in all the walks of
economic life, religion, art and science.
ALEXANDER F. CHAMBERLAIN.
May 22, 1911.
SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS
"Keep evermore the Indian name
So long ago possessed, that tongue
And time which gave alike are gone,
Their history never told or sung.
I would not change, I love the sound
Associate from infancy,
With home and friends and scenes which grew
Through passing years more dear to me."
HPHESE lines are taken from a poem entitled
I Hauppaug Sweet Waters, by Ellen S. Mow-
bray, a Long Island poetess. They are quite
apropos, and will apply, at the present time, to
many Long Island Indian names as herein noted,
such as Montauk, Quogue, Amagansett, Speonk,
Setauket, and others.
They emphasize the desirability of retaining
such reminders of the past, already bestowed, and
of adopting others now obsolete and forgotten,
except as here brought to view.
Two brief vocabularies of the Algonkian lan-
guage, in the Long Island dialects, have been
preserved. The first was obtained by the Hon.
Thomas Jefferson, in the presence of the Hon.
xvi Some Preliminary IVemarKs
James Madison, and General Floyd, on January
J 3> I 79i at Pusspatuck, in the town of Brook-
haven. It consists of about 162 words, including
the numerals, and is in the so-called dialect of the
Unguachog. At that time, said Jefferson : "There
remain but three persons who can speak its lan-
guage. They are old women. From two of these
this vocabulary was taken. A young woman of
the same tribe was also present, who knew some-
thing of the language."
The consonantal interchange from n to r, in
many words, shows the kinship of these old women
to the Quiripis of New Haven, by marriage or
A vocabulary of the Montauks was obtained on
the same visit to Long Island, but it was after-
ward lost by accident on the Potomac River.
The second vocabulary is in the Montauk dia-
lect, and was obtained by John Lyon Gardiner,
the seventh Proprietor of Gardiner's Island, on
March 25, 1798, from George Pharaoh, aged sixty-
six, the oldest man of the tribe, and their chief.
Gardiner states, there were then only seven per-
sons that could speak the language. Many
words of this vocabulary, which numbers about
seventy-five, exhibit much phonetic decay, and
the list presents such an array of English and
Montauk, that I cannot believe, at that time,
there was a native who could speak the language
intelligently and correctly. No doubt dying
Some Preliminary R.emarKs xvii
echoes of the language must have lingered for
many years among the remnant of the tribe.
These two vocabularies, and the names which I
here present, are all that remain of the language
as once spoken from Staten Island to Montauk
Point. The Montauk vocabulary in Wood's
History of Long Island is not a true copy of
the original, as it is lacking in many essentials
I had devoted considerable study to the sub-
ject of Indian names, and Trumbull's work was
familiar to me, previous to 1887, in which year,
I was invited by Mr. H. F. Gunnison, then editor
of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, to prepare a
list of the "Indian Geographical Names of Long
Island, with their Signification," for that annual
for the coming year 1888. The list was revised
and corrected with additions, in the Almanac for
1889 and 1890. This was followed in 1893, by an
essay on The Indian Names of Places in Brooklyn.
In 1894, The Aboriginal Terms for Long Island
appeared. In 1895, was published an essay on
Some Indian Fishing Stations on Long Island.
My theme for 1896 was The Signification of the
Name Montauk. In 1897, my contribution was
The Derivation of the Name Manhattan. After a
lapse of some years, this was followed in the
Almanac for 1904 by a continuation, with additions
and revisions, of the Indian Names of Places from
the Almanac of 1890, which completed my contri-
xviii Some Preliminary IVemarKs
butions to the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac, all of
which were drawn from the present work while
The essays attracted the most attention, and
were reprinted in several periodicals and after-
wards revised with notes for my Algonquian Series.
The list of 1888 was the first ever published, since
Schoolcraft's can hardly be called a list, and De
Kay's was printed for further information but not
Viewed from the standpoint of civilization, the
interpretation of these Indian names is looked
upon as being trivial and very nonsensical ; viewed,
however, from the Indian standpoint, they are
found to be very momentous and interesting.
This standpoint has nearly always been misun-
derstood or ignored. Our early settlers generally
considered this when purchasing land from the
natives, and always retained the Indian boundary
designations, and fully set them forth in the so-
called Indian deeds.
A good illustration of a name, from an Indian's
standpoint, is given by Mackenzie (Voyages,
1st Amer. ed., 1802, pp. 52-53), who mentions
a carry on the Churchill River, in the British
Possessions, called Athiquisipichigan Ouinigan, 1 or
"the Portage of the Stretched Frog Skin," which,
1 The etymology of this name is athi "frog"; quisi "to cut,"
or "to skin"; -pichigan, suffix of instrumentality, something
"stretched out" being understood; ouinigan "a portage."
Some Preliminary RemarKs xix
he says, "was hung up there by the Knisteneaux,
in derision of the natives formerly in possession
of the country, who were held in great contempt
for being poor hunters, and for their ignorance
in properly preparing and stretching the beaver
It has been said, that in the composition of
these names no imagination on the part of the
Indians has been shown. This will apply to those
of simple structure, but not to those of a more
intricate composition, like the above.
The familiar name, tomahawk, also possesses
attributes from the Indian standpoint, totally
unknown to the Americanist. The name of the
weapon had its origin somewhere among the
eastern Algonkians, possibly among the Massachu-
setts, as represented etymologically, by the form
tumetah-who-uk, "he that cuts off, by a blow. "
The Indians were very figurative and expres-
sive in their nature and speech, and so, favorite
weapons, like the tomahawk, were given animate
attributes, as represented by the Massachusetts
notation. Tumhican, "a cutting instrument," is
the inanimate form. The name was adopted so
generally by the whites, that by colloquial usage
it became well known to the Indians of an alien
tongue, who applied it, as did also the English, to
other weapons that would not "cut off," for no
Indian of the language where it had its birth
would have called a curved wooden club with a
xx Some Preliminary IVemarKs
globular head at its end, "a tomahawk," as has
been done in museums and elsewhere.
As Prof. Win. H. Holmes, the eminent ethnolo-
gist, very aptly remarks (American Anthropologist,
n.s. vol. x., p. 276): "The English colonists ap-
plied it not only to the native celt-hatchet, but
to the grooved axe, the falchion club, and the
plain globe-headed club."
It occasionally happens, when collecting Indian
vocabularies, that a mistaken meaning sometimes
occurs, due to the collector or native misunder-
standing the answer to the question given by
Strachey, in his Historic of Travaile into Virginia,
etc., furnishes us with several instances of this
kind, together with one rather remarkable ex-
ample. Once upon a time, as the story goes,
when on a visit to one of the Indian Queens, whose
dominion or habitation was located on the south
shore of James River, he noticed that she wore a
chain of large copper links, which went twice or
thrice about her neck, which he said, they accoun-
ted "a jolly ornament." On his asking about it,
she replied: "tapaantamminais," and so he noted
it in his " Dictionarie " (in the above work) as "a
chayne of copper with long lincks, tapaantami-
nais, ' ' while the real meaning has nothing what-
ever to do with "copper links, " but really indicates
how she obtained it, viz.: "she enough-minded
with corn, or she bought it with corn." Its ety-
Some Preliminary RemarKs xxi
mology is as follows : tapa-antam-minais ( = Massa-
chusetts tapa-antam-minneasti) , from tdpa," enough,
sufficient"; -antam, "minded," the characteristic
and formative of verbs expressing mental states
and activities, hence, "she is satisfied or conten-
ted"; -minais (pi. of min), "corn." It will be
remarked that the Powhatan form is identical with
the Massachusetts (the tilde over the m marks the
omission of the m following), which shows how
close these two dialects are in their cognation.
There are several divisions of names which
have been investigated by the author. First,
the geographical names, properly so-called, which
includes those bestowed by the Indians themselves,
descriptive of some natural feature, and those
that appear as boundary designations, as handed
down by the whites in Indian deeds. These
two sorts are by far the most numerous of all
the names and the most interesting.
The second includes Indian personal names, as
adopted by the English, from the native, who
formerly erected his or her wigwam and planted
the land, swamp, or creek retaining the name.
This includes such well known names as Georgica,
Meacox, and Moriches.
The third consists of those that are not Algon-
kian, although believed to be such by the majority
of the inhabitants of those hamlets retaining the
name. This division includes Sy asset, which is
of Dutch origin; Wainscot, which is English;
xxii Some Preliminary RemarKs
Hoggenock, an error of an engrosser; and Ligonce,
which belongs to the realm of English folk-lore.
The polysynthetical structure of these geogra-
phical names is, with few exceptions, very simple.
The well, known Algonkian scholar, the late J. H.
Trumbull, assigns them to three classes, with
which I agree: "i. Names composed of two
elements, which we may distinguish as adjectival
and substantival; with, or without, a locative suffix
or postposition meaning 'at,' 'in,' 'near,' or the
like. (I use the terms 'adjectival' and 'sub-
stantival ' because no true adjectives or substan-
tives enter into the composition of Algonkian
names. The adjectival may be an adverb or a
preposition; the substantival element is often a
verbal, which serves in composition as a generic
name, but which cannot be used as an independent
word : the synthesis always retains a verbal form.)
"2. Those which have only a single base-
word, the substantival, with a postposition.
"3. Those formed from verbs, as participials
or verbal nouns denoting a place where the action
of the verb is performed."
To Classes I and 2 belong nine-tenths of all the
Algonkian place-names throughout Long Island
and islands adjacent. Those belonging to Class
3 are very rare, so much so that Trumbull does
not mention a single example in his work on
Indian Names in Connecticut, while Long Island
gives us a number of this class of names.
Some Preliminary IVemarKs xxiii
The application of Indian geographical appella-
tions is not always obvious when translated. Let
us illustrate this.
There is a constant inquiry for euphonious
Algonkian names and their signification. These
are desired for various purposes, but all indicate
the awakened interest in the matter under con-
sideration. Such inquiries (until recently when
illness prevented) were always answered to the
best of my ability. In reply, to my often ex-
haustive studies of the names, for most of them
cannot be translated at sight, I am sometimes
informed, that the translation does not apply to
the locality now bearing the name. Why should
it apply, after a lapse of two and a half centuries
The ancient "corn fields" are now covered with
cedars, and the "chestnut trees" in the swamp
have been burned for years, and the "burned
woods ' ' is merely a name. As the poetess has writ-
ten, " tongue and time which gave alike are gone."
Take the well-known name Shinnecock for in-
stance; we find it applied to a canal, to a bay, to a
neck of land, and to a range of hills, the last being
an antithesis to the original bestowal, for Shinne-
cock (not Shinnec-ock, as Ruttenber gives it)
denotes "a level country," describing " Shinne-
cock plain," where the first settlers of Southamp-
ton found the tribe encamped in the earliest days
of the township.
xxiv Some Preliminary RemarKs
Some of the Indian names on Long Island are
duplicated in Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey,
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.
Long Island possesses the honor, however, of
having two "Connecticut," rivers, neither of
which borrowed its name from the larger and
better known river; and it also possesses one
"Mississippi," the name of which, historically,
antedates that of the greater western stream.
Many of the names have suffered curtailment in
some of their component parts. These losses,
due to colloquial use by the English, consist some-
times of an initial prefix, sometimes of a suffix,
frequently of both, which adds to the perplexity
of a puzzling study. These losses can generally
be rectified if we have the early records and deeds
of the townships, wherein the names are often
fully set forth.
Long Island is rich in these records, and the
greater part of them have been published, and so
have added their testimony to the identification
of many names.
In the beginning of my studies in Algonkim
nomenclature, I found it necessary to utilize all
the vocabularies obtainable for purposes of com-
parison, the two Long Island specimens being
totally inadequate for the proper study of these
names. Therefore I have availed myself of
Roger Williams 's Key into the Language of
America; Cotton's Vocabulary of the Massa-
Some Preliminary RemarKs xxv
chusetts; Trumbuirs works; Chamberlain's stud-
ies; and many grammars and works from other
I also found it necessary to do much laborious
study, which does not show to any extent in my
published essays. This includes the preparation
of a Natick-English dictionary, made up from
Eliot's Indian Bible, of which I have a copy of
the second edition, not mentioned by Pilling.
This dictionary consists of over five thousand
entries ; but many words, however, are duplicated,
in order to show their grammatical and polysyn-
thetical construction, as well as to indicate
Eliot's method of compounding words. My
dictionary therefore differs entirely from Trum-
buirs compilation, having been made up for my
own use before his was published by the Bureau of
American Ethnology. Neither work is exhaustive
of the subject, as contained in Eliot's Indian Bible.
In fact, there is strong probability, that if Trum-
bull was unable to exhaust the subject, that it
never will be done, owing to the labor involved
in such an undertaking.
There are certain peculiarities regarding some of
the names of eastern Long Island, not found else-
where. I refer now to some well-known names,
which are almost effectually disguised under the
orthography of a Dutch scribe; for instance, we
find: Mochgonnekonck, given for Shinnecock; Cots-
jewaminck written for Ahaquatuwamuck; Mir-
xxvi Some Preliminary RemarKs
rachtauhacky for Meantaukut; Weyrinteynick for
Wyandance; Catsjeyick for Cutchogue; and several
During the progress of this work, while still
in manuscript, awaiting further search and dis-
covery of new names, I have devoted considerable
study to the names on Martha's Vineyard. This
essay will appear in a forthcoming history of that
island, by Dr. Charles E. Banks, of the U. S.
Marine Hospital Service. Also some study to the
names in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Virginia,
and Maryland, the results of which, with few
exceptions, have never heen published.
There are two studies which I regret to be
obliged to leave incomplete, for I was deeply
interested in them both.
The first is a work on The Proverbs of Solomon,
King of Israel (with notes, vocabulary, etc.), from
the text of the Eliot Indian Bible, in collabora-
tion with Dr. Alexander F. Chamberlain, of Clark
University, Worcester, Mass. In 1907, when I
was obliged to give up this study, fifteen chapters
had been translated, and two chapters copied from
the texts and verified. 1
The second study is Indian Names of Villages
and Streams, from Captain John Smith's Map of
Virginia. This list numbers about 176 names,
1 This work will be continued by Dr. Chamberlain, when
opportunity offers, and will be published as a joint labor of the
Some Preliminary IVemarKs xxvii
the greater part of which are here translated, with
their cognates from other dialects.
The difficulty of interpreting and translating
Indian names is seen not only in the work of ama-
teurs but in that of some claiming a somewhat
intimate knowledge of aboriginal languages and
aboriginal history. An example of erroneous in-
terpretation is to be ! seen in the discussion of the
etymology of the name Ronkonkoma by the late
E. M. Ruttenber, in his Indian Geographical
Names, published in the Proceedings of the New
York State Historical Association for 1906. His
derivation is wrong topographically, as well as
linguistically. Marechkawick (1637), the Indian
name of Brooklyn, cannot possibly be derived
from Mereca, the South American name for a
wild duck, now applied to the species classified
scientifically, which had not been done in the
early seventeenth century. Nor can Moriches
be derived from the name of a South American
palm, Moriche palmata; or Canarsie be made the
equivalent of an East Indian Canarese. The
Algonkian origin of these three names is be-
yond doubt, their resemblances to words in other
languages being simply chance. Yet such
etymologies are to be found in the work of Mr.
Ruttenber and others who have not hesitated
to criticise the labors of competent Algonkinists.
Of such chance likenesses Major J. W. Powell,
the eminent ethnologist, wrote:
xxviii Some Preliminary IVemarKs
"Such accidental resemblances are often found,
and tyro philologists frequently assemble them for
the purpose of demonstrating linguistic relation-
ship; such adventitious similarities are discovered
in all departments of human activities, and have
no value for comparative purposes."
During the assembling of this list of Indian
names, many ancient manuscript records, un-
recorded deeds and papers relating to long for-
gotten lawsuits, have been searched in order to
make it exhaustive, if such an event were possible.
However that may be, we can truthfully say it is
nearly so, and leave to others to bring to light
those that have been overlooked. Among the
many friends, who have willingly assisted, with
good success, in this search, I might name the late
George R. Howell, Orville B. Ackerly, Esq., and
William S. Pelletreau, A.M., to whom I owe my
grateful acknowledgments, for the interest they
have taken in my work. To Herbert F. Gunni-
son, of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, my thanks are
also due, for continued interest in my studies.
Miss Anna Mulford, has my thanks for her valued
help in preparing these remarks.
WM. WALLACE TOOKER.
SAG HARBOR, N. Y.
The Indian Place-Names on
on Long Island
i. ACABONACK, Acabonuk: a neck of land,
meadows and harbor, in Easthampton town, ad-
joining Gardiner's Bay. In the early records the
name is almost invariably applied to the meadows.
The meadow was laid out in 1651, viz.: "It is
ordered that Thomas Baker . . . shall lay out
Occabonack meadow betweene this and the iQth of
this instant July uppon penalltie of payeinge io s
every one yt shall neglect the same by the day"
(E. H. R., vol. i., pp. 15-16). Variations are
Accobannocke, 1652; Accaboneck, 1655; Occobonak,
1655; Ackobonuk, 1667; Ackabonuk, 1672, etc.
Beauchamp (Ind. Names in N. Y., 1893) has
I cannot do any better on this name than to
quote from Trumbull's study :
"The Indians frequently designated localities
by the names of esculent or medicinal roots which
they produced. In the Algonkin language, the
generic name for tubers and bulbs was pen,
2 Indian Place-Names
varying in some dialects to pin, pena, pon or
bun. This name seems originally to have be-
longed to the common ground-nut, Apios tuber osa
(Abnaki, pen, pi. penak). Other species were
designated by prefixes to this generic, and in the
composition of place-names, a suffix was employed
to denote locality (auk, auki, ock, etc.). . . .
Several local names of this kind have been
preserved in the eastern townships of Long
Island. The species denoted by the prefix
cannot in all cases be determined, but the
generic name, with its localizing affix, is easily
"Acabonac, Accabonuck: now the name of a
harbor of Gardiner's Bay, Easthampton, was
originally the designation of a ' root place. ' The
species is not ascertained. Probably it is the
same that is mentioned by Hariot, in Virginia, as
Okeepenauk, 'roots of round shape,' found in dry
ground; the inhabitants used to boil and eat
many of them" (Mag. Amer. Hist., vol. i., 1877,
2. ACCOMBOMMOK: "An ancient village site
on Montauk" (De Kay's Indian Names on Long
Island}. The writer has been unable to find any
other authority, than the above for this name. De
Kay may have taken his authority from the
(a) Accombomok: "Is the name of part of the
On Longf Island 3
town [of Easthampton], lying on the north ad-
joining the sound where there is a small harbor."
(Thompson, vol. i., p. 310.) Appears also as
Acabomock (U. S. Coast Survey map). This
place has always been known locally as Acabo-
(b) Accombomack: "That part of it [Shinne-
cock] adjoining Peconic Bay is called Accom-
bomack" (Thompson, vol. i., p. 359). This is
another error, as the locality mentioned has always
been known as Seponack or Sabonack. See Acom-
3. ACCOMPSETT: a locality in Smithtown, L. I.
Found recorded in an order concerning the Smith-
town boundary, dated 1670: "Declaring and
offering to prove that ye Nesaquake lands lay on
both sides of ye Ryver, and that parte lyeing on
ye westsyde, comonly called Nesaquaque Accomp-
sett, did extend as farre as ye fresh pond west-
ward" (H. R., vol. i., p. 170). See Nesaquaque
4. ACHABACHAWESUCK: a small creek or brook,
between Fourth Neck and Pine Neck, Atlantic-
ville, Southampton town. It is now known locally
as Wesuck. In the laying out of Wonunk Neck
in 1686, we find it stated: "Fourth Neck begins
at a marked tree a little below quogo path, and
soe runs strait over to a tree at Acha-bacha-we-
4 Indian Place-Names
suck, about 50 poles below the going over"
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 114). The variations are
Achabachwesuck, 1686; Achabusuckwesuck, 1738;
Achabuchawesuck, 1738; Wesuck, 1738. This long
name has been a puzzle for a long time, owing to
loss of a portion of its reduplicated prefix, and
the substitution of b for p. The real etymology
is (Ch}acha-bachau-we-suck, corresponding to Mass-
achusetts Chachapdchauwesuck, "separated turn-
ing aside little brook, " hence "a boundary brook. "
The intensive prefix denotes "a permanent or
continuous division or separation." The com-
ponents of the word are, therefore, chacha, denot-
ing "division," "separation"; pdchau, "he turns
aside," "deviates"; -suck, "creek," "brook."
5. ACOMBAMACK: the neck of land on which is
situated the village of Bellport, Brookhaven town.
This name is first mentioned in the Indian deed of
1664, viz.: "Concerning a parsell of land, lyinge
upon the south side of Long Island, being bounded
on the south with the Grate baye, and on the weste
with a fresh ponde, aioyning to a place comonly
called Acombamack, and on the east with a river
called Yamphanke," etc. (B. H. R., vol. i., p. n).
Variations are Occombamack, Ockanbamack, Com-
bamack. The word Acombamack signifies "over
against the fishing-place." The first section,
acomb or occomb, is the parallel of the Massachu-
setts ogkome (Eliot); Chippewa, agami; Narra-
On Long; Island 5
gansett, acawamen, signifying "on the other side,"
"over against"; the terminal affix -amack, de-
notes "a fishing-place," and is a common adjunct
to many Indian place-names throughout New
England and on Long Island. In this case, the
neck of land was probably near a place where the
Indians had a fishing weir. See also Algonquian
Series, vol. i., pp. 16-18.
6. AGAWOM, Agawam: the town pond in the
village of Southampton is now called Lake Aga-
wam. Ogilby, who, in his History of America
(1671, p. 161), writes: "About the year 1640, by a
fresh supply of people, that settled on Long Island,
who there erected the twenty third town, called
Southampton, by the Indians Agawom," commits
an error which has been perpetuated by many of
the Long Island historians without question. It
does not appear in any of the early records of the
township. Ogilby, in the opinion of the writer,
by mistake took this from Smith's Generall Historie
of New-England (1624, p. 205), where the English
name of Southampton was bestowed by Prince
Charles, at the suggestion of Capt. John Smith,
on an Indian village in Massachusetts called
Agawom. The locality afterwards was called
The name is applied to several localities through-
out New England where there are low flat meadows
or marshes. Of the several suggested transla-
6 Indian Place-Names
tions, none are satisfactory, mainly because a
termination is missing, making the name Aga-
wom-uk, "where there is a going under," from
agwu, "under," -worn, "a going," with locative,
"where there is." The word would thus mean:
"low flat meadows," that are frequently over-
flowed. See other names belonging to Trumbull's
third class. J. N. B. Hewitt (Handb. of Amer.
Inds. N. of Mexico, vol. i., 1907, p. 21) interprets
Agawam as "fish-curing (place)," and Kinnicutt
(Ind. Names of Places in Plym. Co., Mass., 1909,
p. 1 8) as " unloading-place, " or "landing-place,"
but neither of these can be correct.
7. AHAQUATUWAMUCK : Shelter Island. This
name occurs occasionally in the early records
separately. First, in the Dutch archives as
Cotsjewaminck, afterwards in the English, in 1652,
viz: "And hee the said Yokee delivered unto the
aforesaid Captaine Nathaniel Silvester and En-
signe John Booth one turfe with a twige in their
hands according to the usual custome of the
English, after which delivery and full possession
given, the said Yokee, with all his Indians that
were formerly belonging to said Island of Aha-
quatuwamuck did freely and willingly depart"
(Southold R., vol. i., p. 158). "All that their
Islands of Ahaquatuwamuck otherwise called
Menhansack in 1656" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 97).
See Manhansack Ahaquatuwamock.
On Long Island 7
8. AMAGANSETT: a, village in East Hampton
town. ' ' The foundation of the village was laid out
at a very early day; its Indian owner was Am-eag-
an-sett" (Gardiner's Chronicles of East Hampton).
No authority for this statement can be found.
I have previously given the signification as
"in the neighborhood of the fishing-place"
(Brooklyn Eagle Almanac, 1888, 1889, 1890;
E. H. R., vol. iv., 1889). This seemed to be right
by etymology, and from the celebrity of the
locality as a whaling station from a very early
period. Besides, a similar name appears as the
terminal syllable in a Rhode Island place-name,
viz.: Mashaquamagansett, "red (salmon) fishing-
place." This meaning was originally furnished
by Dr. Trumbull of Hartford, Conn., to Wm. S.
Pelletreau, Esq., who gave it in his paper before
the Suffolk County Teachers Association, May
3, 1883. Recent study of Eliot's Indian Bible in
connection with the town records has fully con-
vinced me that it is wrong, as the following shows.
That part of the village south of the main street
was known at the earliest period as the ' ' Indian
well plain," and was laid out previous to 1668
(E. H. R., vol., i., pp. 305, 322). The tract north
of the street was part of the undivided common
land up to 1672, and was known as the "woods
north of the Indian well" and as the "Amogonset
woods." In 1672, Rev. Thos. James, John Mul-
ford, and Jeremiah Conkling, in consideration of
their resigning title to the land on Montauk pur-
chased by them in 1670 (see Wuchebesuck) , were
granted a tract "att the woodland lyeing against
the Indyan well, " or "above the Indyan well plain
in the woods" (E. H. R., vol. i., pp. 344, 353).
In 1683, Thos. James sells fifty-two acres of his
allotment to Abraham Schellinger "in the woods
eastward of ye towne, bounded E. by Jeremy
Conkling, W. by Thos. James, south by ye high-
way that goes to Napeage, north by highway
commonly called A mogonset way." James's deed
to Schellinger is not on record, but he conveys the
remainder of his tract to the same party in 1685,
where the land is "toward ye Indian well"
(E. H. R., vol. i., p. 235). John Mulford sells
part of his tract in 1698, "lying Eastward in ye
woods north of ye Indian well" (E. H. R., vol. ii.,
p. 409). In the following year (1699) he conveys
another part of the same tract "at Ammaganset"
(vol. ii., p. 465). A depression in the ground
running for some distance north and south through
the village is occasionally mentioned in the records
as the "Indian well hollow" and is still so-called.
Isaac Schellinger, a descendant of Abraham Schel-
linger, now aged (1890) about eighty, says that
tradition, as handed down to him, located the
Indian well near the U. S. Life-Saving Station,
on land now belonging to Mrs. Benj. Terry. The
well was probably the hollow trunk of a pepperidge
tree (Nyssa multiflora) sunk in the meadow that
On Long Island 9
adjoins the upland. I have seen several placed in
that manner at running springs of water, that
were quite ancient. Variations of the Indian
name are: Amogonset woods, 1688; Amegansit
woods, 1694; Amagansick, 1695; Amiganset, 1695;
Ameganset, 1695; Ammagansit, 1698; Amegonset
woods, 1699 (E. H. R., vol. ii., pp. 229, 309, 333,
335> 337 408, 463). These terms all refer to the
tract granted to the three individuals above
named. The word Amagansett is therefore the
Algonkian synonym of the English "Indian well
plain"; and the Indians in speaking of it used
the prefix which the whites dropped, as was fre-
quently the case in many Indian place-names.
The etymology is wutah, "a thing"; amogan, to
drink " \-es-it, " at, about," etc. As a whole Wutah-
amogan-es-it "at about or in the neighborhood of
the drinking thing (a well)," the equivalent of the
Massachusetts (Eliot) wutah-amoganit, "at the
well" (Genesis xxix., 2); wuttah-hamonganit, "to
the spring (Deut. iv., 49); and of the Narragan-
setts wutt'ammagon, "a pipe," "drink instru-
ment" (R. Williams); wutt'amme, "he drinks"
(R. Williams); wutt'ammanog, "weak tobacco,"
lit. "what they drink" (R. Williams). Both the
early settlers and the Indians used the verb "to
drink" when speaking of smoking a pipe.
9. ANCHANNOCK : Robins Island, Peconic Bay,
Southold town. The Indian name of this island
io Indian Place-Names
seems to have been entirely lost, until it was
brought to light by the publishing of the early
records. The Indian deed, dated Dec. 7, 1665,
says: "Certain Island called in the Indian tonge
Anchannock in English Robert's Island [Robins],
scituate lying and being in a branch of the sea
that runs up between Southampton and Southold
right over against that part of Long Island that is
called Corchauk" (S. R., vol. L, p. 255). This
island, together with Shelter Island (as the story
goes) was chosen by James Farrett, the agent for
the Earl of Stirling, as his perquisite, and ex-
empted from the Southampton conveyance of
1640. Farrett having conveyed the latter to
Stephen Goodyear of New Haven in 1641, he must
also have sold this island to Robert Carmand or
Cannon (?) for we find: "and whereas alsoe the
said Stephen Goodyear by his bill of sale from
Robert Carmand did stand seized of one Island
commonly called by the name of Robert's Island
scituate lying neere Menhansack Island aforesaid
hee the said Robert Carmand haveinge formerly
purchased the same of lyoncam Sachem of Pam-
manock" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 97). No other
record of Carmand 's purchase can be found.
In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for 1888, 1889,
1890, I gave the meaning as a "place full of
timber" or "land well wooded," considering it
the equivalent of the Delaware (Zeisberger) tach-
annicke, "full of timber," tachanigeu, "woody,"
On Long Island II
etc. Hence we have Anchann-auke, "land well
wooded," or "full of timber." After many years
of study I am fully satisfied that the above is the
true etymology, for none other answers as well.
Wood was very scarce in Southold town from a
very early day. See Mattituck.
10. ANENDESAK: a tract of land in Huntington
town. Records show "July 30, 1705, Cornells
Van Texall and others petition for a tract of land
on Long Island, in the county of Suffolk, near the
town of Huntington called by the natives Anende-
sak, in English Eader necks beach." The mean-
ing of Anendesak has not been ascertained. The
word is probably badly corrupted (Eader neck =
11. ANOCK: a short creek at the bottom of
Fourth Neck, Atlanticville, Southampton. The
trustees of the Freeholders and Commonalty of the
town of Southampton, under date of July I, 1698,
sold the common grass to Francis Sayre, from
Annock to the west bounds. (Meacox Bay Oyster
Case, p. 382.) Elisha Howell's will, dated May 15,
1771, leaves son Mathew Howell "all that neck
of land called Fourth neck and the land lying
against said neck -between the land of Capt.
John Post and the creek called Anock Creek"
(Pelletreau's Will, Sea-Side Times, Oct. 24, 1889).
This is a remnant of a longer name, but what
12 Indian Place-Names
the original might have been, it is impossible to say
at this late day, as it is not found on record except
as above. There are several names with similar ter-
minations, such as : Mamanock, Mashmanock, etc.
12. ANUSKKUMMIKAK : neck of land in Baby-
lontown, formerly called "Little East Neck," or
"Capt. Fleet's Neck." We find the following in
the early records of Huntington town, 1682: "A
parcell of land or meadow lying and being
upon a certain neck called by ye name of Anus-
bymonika lying and being on ye south side
of Long Island, being bound on the east by
a creek; on the south by ye meadow of Cap-
tain Thomas Fleet" (vol. i., p. 341). An Indian
deed of 1697 says: "A certain necke of land
lying on ye south side of this Island within Hunt-
ington Patten joyning to a river yt parteth this sd
necke and a neck called Sampaumes this river is
called by ye Indians Anuskcomuncak, this sd neck
is called ye Easte neck, or Captain Fleet's Neck,
by the Indians Arasecoseagge" (vol. ii., p. 214).
A deed of 1698: "Part of an Island of meadow
being undevided lying on ye east side of ye neck
called Amuskemunnica being bound on ye east
with Sampaumes creek" (vol. ii., p. 218). Varia-
tions are Wamskcumuncake (Munsell's Hist. Suff.
Co.}', Anuskkummikak (J. W. Cooper, Esq., Baby-
lon Signal, June 13, 1885).
These extracts from the old records prove con-
On Long Island 13
clusively that the name belonged originally to the
upland only, and not to the creek or meadow;
and that Captain Fleet's meadow of Arasecoseagge
was on the south of this neck. On the upland
were located the corn fields of the Indians, doubt-
less free from timber at the time of settlement.
From this fact was derived the name, which signi-
fies "land to hoe or break up," "planting land,"
"corn fields," "plowed ground"; the parallel is
found in the Narragansett (R. Williams) anask-
hommin, "to hoe or break up"; munaskunnemen,
"to weed"; Delaware (Zeisberger) munaskhamen,
"to weed," "to hoe out." Eliot uses the same
radical in various forms for "to work," "plow-
ing, " "the plowman, " etc., as, e.g., in Hosea, x. 12,
annaskhamook, ' ' break up " ; Isaiah xxiii., 24, anask-
hammen, "plowman"; Micahiii., 12, anashkamuk,
"plowed. " Wood in his New England's Prospect
(1634) gives: "another work is their planting of
corne, wherein they exceede our English hus-
bandman, keep it so cleare with their clamme-
shell-hooes as if it were a garden rather than a
cornfield not suffering a choking weede to advance
his audacious head above their infant corne, or
an undermining worme to spoile his spurnes. "
Roger Williams (1643) says: "When a field is to
be broken up, they have a very loving, sociable
speedy way to dispatch it; all the neighbors men
and women, forty, fifty, hundred, joine and come in
to helpe freely. The women set or plant, weede and
14 Indian Place-Names
hill and gather and barne all the corne and Fruites
of the Field ; y t sometimes the man himself (either
out of love to his wife, or care for his children, or
being an old man) will help the woman which (by
the custome of the country) they are not bound to."
13. APOCOCK: tract of upland and meadow,
east of Beaver-dam River, West Hampton. The
locality is now termed Paucuck. It is noted in
the Southampton town records as early as 1663,
viz. : " All these lands that he the said John Scot
boght of Mr. John Ogden of Feversham, lying
and being bounded, west on the south with a
creek or river comonly knowne by the appellation
of Apaucuck" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. 175).
An agreement of 1665 says: "The bounds
agreed upon between the Shinnacock and Unche-
chauke Indians before the Governor Richard
Nicoll are, 'That the Shinnecocks Bounds to the
westward are to Apaucock Creeke, That the
Unchechauge Bounds to the East are Apaucock
Creek, That the middle of the River is the utmost
Bounds to each, But that either nation may cutt
fflaggs for their use on either side of the River
without molestacon or breach of the Limetts,
agreed" (Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p. 125, Office
of Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). Variations are:
Apocuck, 1712; Appocock, 1738; Apockac, 1746;
Apocock, 1748. This name is a variation of
Appaquoge (Appuhqu-auke or Apoqu-auke) " flaggy
On Long Island 15
land," or "wigwam-covering place." See Appa-
14. APPAQUOGUE, Apoquogue: a farming dis-
trict in East Hampton town, near a flaggy
meadow. Although well known by this appella-
tion throughout the township, it is not mentioned
in the town records. The vicinity is sometimes
designated as the "Lily Pond." As the name
occurs in several localities throughout Connecticut,
and on Long Island, we cannot do better than to
give Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull's study from his
Indian Names in Connecticut: The name signi-
fies "a place where flags grow, " such as were used
by the Indians for mats and for covering their
wigwams: particularly the cat-tail flag (Typha
latifolia). The root means "to cover"; as in the
Massachusetts, appuhquau, "he covers it," and
abuhquosik, "a covering " ; Narragansett abockquos,
"a mat for covering the wigwam"; Chippewa
apakwei, "lodge mat." Chippewa and Ottawa
pukwi, "cat-tail flag, " gives its name to Puckaway
Lake, on the route from Green Bay to Wisconsin
River (see Tanner's Narrative, p. 55). The word
appaquogue represents appaqui-auke and means
"lodge-covering place," the components being
appaqui, "lodge-covering"; -auke, "place."
15. APPOPOTTAMAX : creek at Bay Shore.
Mentioned in Brooklyn Times of January 26, 1899,
16 Indian Place-Names
as about to be dredged. This name is not on re-
cord, as far as I can learn, and no other authority
than the above has been found for it. If the form is
correct, it is probably appoquot-om-uck, "where
there is going for flags, " or "where flags are gath-
ered." The form belongs to Trumbull's Class 3, and
is interesting on that account. See Appaquogue.
1 6. AQUEBOGUE: hamlet in Riverhead town,
about three miles east of the county seat. The
name belonged originally to land and meadows on
the north side of the bay, although the same name
was afterwards bestowed on meadows at Flanders
in Southampton town. These meadows were
considered very valuable by the early settlers and
were the cause of a lawsuit in 1667. They are
frequently mentioned in both the Southampton
and Southold town records. This name appears
first in the two Indian deeds of 1648, viz.: "The
whole tract of land commonly called Ocquebauck
together with the land and meadows lying on the
other side the water as far as the creek . . .
Toyoungs" (S. R., vol. ii., p. 12). "For all that
land lying between Conchake and Ucquebaak com-
monly called Mattatuck" (B. H. R., vol. vi., p.
76). From the above abstracts it will be readily
seen that Ucquebaug was land on the north side of
Peconic River and Bay. Paucamp, an old Indian,
said in 1667: "Toyoungs [Red Creek as it is
now called] being the outbounds lying in opposi-
On Long; Island 17
tion to Occabauk old grounds on the north side of
the bay. " The variations of this name are almost
innumerable, among them: Occabock, 1656; Occo-
bauk, 1663; Agabake, 1663; Ocquebauk, 1663;
Ahkobauk, 1667; Ackqueboug, 1670; Aucquobouke,
1675; Hauquebaug, i6^;Occaquabauk, 1681, etc.,
etc. With all these variations, it resolves itself
into an original Ucque-baug, "the end of the
water-place" or "head of the bay" (ukque, be-
ing a variation of wequa, "at the end of," "as
far as," "at the head," -bang, being a variation
of the inseparable generic -paug, "water-place").
The Montauk chief in 1667, referring to this land
(Ukquebaug) called it "land from ye head of the
bay" (Col. Hist, of N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 600). See
also the discussion of this name by the late Wil-
liam Jones in the Handbook of American Indians
North of Mexico (Bull. 30, Pt. I., p. 71, Bur. Amer.
Ethnol., Wash., 1907). Mr. Jones's etymology is,
however, not to be approved.
17. AQUEHONGA MANACKNONG: Staten Island,
Richmond Co., N. Y. A deed from the Indians
to Governor Lovelace, April 13, 1660, is for "an
Island in Hudson's River, commonly called
Staten Island, and by the Indians Aquehonga
Manacknong" (Land Papers, Office of the Sec'y
of State, Albany, N. Y., vol. i., p. 34).
This name probably referred to a palisadoed
village of the Indians, or perhaps one belonging
i8 Indian Place-Names
to the whites, located somewhere on the broad
range of hills that extend across the island (near
Tompkinsville these hills attain an elevation of
310 feet). The first part of the name is given in
Dutch notation as "Ehquaons," Aquehonga being
the parallel of the Delaware (Zeisberger) achwo-
wangeu, "steep high bank"; manacknong from
the Delaware manachk, "a fort," "stockade," or
any "fenced enclosure"; -nong the terminal suffix
denoting "locality," "place," etc. The word as
a whole signifies "the high bank foot place," or
"place of the high bank foot." See Monocknong
1 8. ARACA, A race: West Neck, Amity ville,
Babylon town. Recorded in the Indian deed of
1697, viz.: "A certain neck of land lying on ye
south side of this Island called by ye Indians
araca by ye English ye west neck being ye weste-
most neck of Huntington bounds on ye south side
bounded on ye east by a River and swampe which
parteth this sd neck and Neck called by ye Indians
scuraway" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 208). Arace, 1698.
This name is perhaps the same as the Narragansett
awwasse, Delaware awusse, Abnaki awas, "be-
yond," "furthermost," "further," especially as
it was the " westemost neck "of Huntington bounds
at that date, as was Arasecoseagge on the east.
19. ARASECOSEAGGE: neck of land at the vil-
On Long Island 19
lage of Babylon. It is mentioned by this name
once only in the records of the town, then in the
Indian deed of 1697, viz.: "Sd necke is called by
ye english ye outermost east necke or comonly
known by ye name of Captain fleets neck and by
ye Indans arasecoseagge. Bounded on ye west by
a swampe yt parteth ye other east neck and this
sd neck of upland from ye edge of ye medow to ye
head of ye swamp" (H. R., vol. ii, p. 214).
Arascascagge (Munsell's Hist. S. C.). Mr. J. W.
Cooper, in the Babylon Signal, June 15, 1885,
writes: "The neck of land on which the Argyle
Hotel was situated was called Awrasse-cas-cagge."
The same neck is referred to under two other
entries in the town records as Anusk kummikak,
the probable explanation of which is that one was
the name of the upland, while the other desig-
nated the meadow.
Roger Williams would probably have written
this name, Awwassemicuckaskeet, "the furthermost
meadow" (arase, the parallel of the Narragansett
awasse, Delaware awossi, Abnaki, awas, "fur-
ther, " "beyond, " "furthermost, " etc. ; coseagge,
a corruption of a word corresponding to the Narra-
gansett micuckaskeet, "a meadow"). The English
appellation "Eastermost east neck," corroborates
this analysis of the word.
20. ARESHUNK: a neck of land at Centre
Moriches, Brookhaven town. The landing at
2O Indian Place-Names
the foot of Union Avenue at that village is some-
times so designated. The neck is now in the
possession of Gaston Fay, the artist. The deed of
Wm. Smith to Walter Dongan gives it as Areshunk,
1734. Another spelling is Arescunk, 1751. The
deed of Jno. Gardiner to Jeremiah Havens, Aug.
I, 1796, is "for a neck of land commonly called
and known by the name of Aresunk Neck. " This
name is no doubt derived from that of the Indian
owner of the neck. John Mayhue, Indian, in
1680, deeds to John Townsend of Oyster Bay, "a
sartain small neck of land on ye west side of
Watslioge where my kinsman Warishone now
liveth. " The last word is varied as Worishun in
1680. Areshunk is without a doubt a corrupted
form of Warishone, the name of this Indian, which
may be cognate with the Delaware (Zeisberger)
wanessin, "to forget," hence "the forgetter. "
21. ARHAKAAMUNK: Crab Meadow, Hunting-
ton town. The variations of this name are quite
puzzling and misleading. It was originally named
in the deed of 1659, for a tract of land, now partly
in Huntington and partly in Smithtown, given by
Wiandance, the Sachem of Paumanack, to Lyon
Gardiner, for his services in rescuing the Sachem's
captive daughter from the Narragansetts, viz.:
"We say it lyeth between Huntington and Seatau-
cut, the western bounds being Cow Harbor easterly
Acataamunt" (Book of Deeds, vol. ii, p. 118, Office
On Long Island 21
of the Secy, of State, Albany, N. Y.); copy of the
original furnished to Mrs. C. C. Gardiner of St. Louis
by the Long Island Historical Society, "Easterly
Arhataamunt" ; Hon. J. Lawrence Smith's Notes
on Smithtown, Munsell's Hist. S. C.), Acatamunk;
Nassaconsett's Deed to Richard Smith in 1665,
Catawamuck; Dongan's Patent, 1685, to Judge
Palmer and John Roysee, "called Crab Meadow,
or by the Indians Katawamac. " The writer, on a
recent visit to the rooms of the Historical Society,
examined the original very carefully and found the
word to be Ar ha t a a munt. It denotes a place
where the Indians went to catch crabs, "a crab
fishing-place." The prefix arhata is the parallel
of the Chippewa (Baraga) ajageshi or ashagashi;
Cree (Lacombe) asdkew; Algonquin (Mackenzie)
achakens, acage (Cuoq) ; Delaware (Zeisberger)
schahamuis, "craw-fish," "a crab"; Virginian
(Strachey) ashaham, "lobster." The root means
"they go back and forwards, from one side to the
other, "as in Eliot (Joelii., 9), ahaosukque, " to and
fro"; -amunk, "a fishing-place," from the insepa-
rable generic -amack. The English name is
probably from the same circumstance. See the
discussion of this word in Algonquian Series, vol.
vii., pp. 19-21.
22. ARRASQUAUG: "a brook forming part of
the western boundary of South Oyster Bay,
Queen's Co." (De Kay's Indian Names on L. /.).
22 Indian Place-Names
The stream is now known as "Minell's Creek."
This name is found in the Andros Patent of 1677,
viz.: "Then along the sea-coast westerly to
another certain river called Arrasquaung,"
(Thompson's Long Island, vol. i., p. 488). See
23. ARSHAMOMAQUE : hamlet in Southold town,
near Greenport, L. I. This name appears as
Harshamomogue, 1795. SeeHashamomuk.
24. ASAWSUNCE: a swamp in Brookhaven
town, south of the village of Yaphank. The name
by lapse of time has become corrupted to Oosunk,
and it appears in that form in Bayles's History of
Suffolk County. It is recorded in the Indian deed
of Yaphank neck, 1688, viz. : "North by a swompe
called Asawsunce" and again in 1745 (B. H. R.,
vol. i., pp. 71, 156). Another variation is Oosence,
1808. This swamp probably derives this name
from Asawsunce an Indian who lived at the swamp
during the early days of settlement. Investiga-
tion would probably reveal some token of his so-
journ. Awoshonks or Awasuncks appears as the
appellation of a swamp in Rhode Island, which
takes its name from the celebrated squaw Sachem
of Sogknoate in 1671. Sawseunck an Indian signs
the agreement with Governor Eaton at Quinny-
piock or New Haven, in 1638 (N. H. Col. R., vol.
i.). This shows parallel personal names.
On Long; Island 23
25. ASHAMOMUCK: Crab Meadow, Huntington
town (C. C. Gardiner, Papers and Biography of
Lyon Gardiner, 1883). See Arhakaamunk.
26. ASHAWAGH: a locality at Hand's Creek,
Three Mile Harbor, East Hampton town. Under
date of January 2, 1666, "John Osburne ex-
changes meadow at Ashshowale." Again,
September 14, 1705, "Jeremiah Miller exchanges
meadow lying at a place called Hand's Creek, to
say all the meadow ground adjoining unto the
said creek and Ashawagh that meadow ground at
the head of the west branch of the said creek only
excepted" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 251 ; vol. iii., p. 138).
The land about Hand's Creek bears evidences of
Indian sojourners in time past. Every sheltered
valley in this vicinity facing the water bears a
shell-heap. On the northern slope, at the head of
Hand's Creek, between the branches of the creek
can be seen the proofs of Indian habitations
(shells, arrow points, pottery sherds, etc.). This
aboriginal village covered over an acre of ground.
It was this place that was called Ashwagh, signi-
fying "a place between" (the branches of the
creek). Compare Massachusetts nashaue (Eliot),
"in the middle"; n'ashaw-auk, "land in the
middle." The same name occurs in various
forms throughout New England and on Long
Island, Ashawog, Assawog, Nashaway, etc. See
24 Indian Place-Names
27. ASPATUCK: a creek in the western part
of Southampton town, between Ketchaponack
Neck and the locality formerly called "Little
Assups Neck," now known as Quiogue. "At a
town meeting, April I, 1682, it was agreed that
all the meadow between Quantuck and Aspatatuck
shall be laid out in proportions according to pro-
priety" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 93). This is the first
appearance in the records. Variations are Aspa-
tatuck, 1682; Aspatuck, 1686; Assopatuck, 1738;
Assapatuck, 1738; Assopstauk, 1738; Aspatuck,
1792. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac (1888), I
gave the meaning as "the high place, " considering
it the same as Aspatock, a river in New Milford,
Conn. The name which means "high place,"
a "height" (ashpohtag, Eliot), was transferred to
the river from some elevation near it probably
from the ridge which divides its branches (Trum-
bull's Indian Names in Conn.). Wm. S. Pelle-
treau, in his paper, Indian Geographical Names
in Suffolk County, derives the name from the
same source. The writer now doubts this deriva-
tion, and suggests the following comparison,
hashabp, hashab in Eliot; plural ashappog in Cot-
ton. This word is used by Eliot for "flax,"
"tow," "a fish-net," and (Job viii., 14; Is. lix.,
5) for a spider's web. It may have been primarily
a generic name for vegetable fibre or fibrous mate-
rial, specially appropriated to the Indian hemp
(Apocynum cannabinum Mich.), thence to nets,
On Long Island 25
lines, and ropes made from that or other fibrous
plants (Trumbull, Narragansett Club, vol. i.).
Roger Williams says: "A shop, their nets, which
they will set thwart some little river or cove
wherein they kill basse (at the fall of the water)
with their arrows, or sharp sticks, especially if
headed with iron, gotten from the English, etc."
From this our word Ashapo 'tuck signifies "fish-net
cove," or "creek." Governor Andros in 1676
gave John Cooper permission to make fishing-
weirs in two creeks, one of which was Quaquantuck,
to the east of this creek.
28. ASSASQUAGE: Great Meadow Creek, near
Jamesport, Riverhead town. So called in the
Indian deed of March 14, 1648, for the tract of
land "commonly called Ocquebauck," where we
read, "provided that the aforesaid Indians, may
enjoy during their lives, a small peice of land, to
Plant upon, lying between the two creeks, Mia-
megg, and Assasquage. " (Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p.
210, Office of the Secy, of State, Albany, N. Y.)
The name occurs also as Assasquog. This creek
takes its name from the meadow through which
it flows. Assasquage or Assasquog ( = Mass-asqu-
ogue) means "great grass place or great marshy
place," hence "a great meadow," as named in
the Indian deed. See the discussion of the word
Missisquoi, which probably has a like signification,
in Dr. Geo. M. McAleer's A Study of the Ely-
26 Indian Place-Names
mology of the Indian Place- Name Missisquoi,"
(Worcester, Mass., 1906). The word Massas-
quogue is composed of mass, "great;" asqu,
"grass;" -oque (-oke), "place."
29. ASSAWANAMA: A pond in Huntington
town. Records show that on July 30, 1 705, Corne-
lis Van Texall and others petition for a tract of
land in the County of Suffolk, near the town of
Huntington, "called by the natives Anendesak,
in English Eader Necks Beach, along the sound
four miles, unto the fresh pond called by the
natives Assawanama where a creek runs into the
sound and from the sound running into the woods
six miles or thereabouts." (Cal. of Land Papers
in Office of Secretary of State, p. 79.) This is
probably the same pond, called in the earlier
records Unchemau or Unshemamuck, and the
above, possibly a corruption of the same; but the
present form makes it a different word entirely.
The components of the name are assawa = nashaue
(Eliot), "in the middle," "between," "midway,"
"place between," etc.; -ama = -amaug or -amack,
"a fishing-place"; Assawanama thus signifies
"the midway fishing-place," or "fishing-place
between (the forks, or on the forks, of a river,
creek, etc.)." See Ashawagh.
30. ASSUPS: name applied to two necks of
land in the western part of Southampton town.
The one east of Aspatuck Creek being known as
On Long Island 27
"Little Assups, " while the one east of Quantuck
Creek was known as "Assups. " We find it first
noted, May 29, 1673, viz.: "Whereas those men
. . . have . . . laid out ye homeward neck of
meadow at and about Quaguanantuck, viz. from
the west side of ye neck comonly called Assops
neck unto a short creek at ye bottom of ... the
4th neck. " (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 252.) Variations
are Assops, 1673; Assups, 1686; Assoops, 1738;
Assup, 1734. In the study of this name several
reasons may be brought forward to show its prob-
able origin and signification. From the mark of
the possessive, it might have been derived from
Assup, an Indian, whose name may be the equi-
valent of the Narragansett (Williams) Ausup, "the
raccoon. " This seems to be proven by the records
(1686): " Assup' s Little neck, the bounds of the
upland thereof laid out by us is on the west side
of a small pine tree." (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 113.)
Wm. S. Pelletreau, in his Indian Names in Suffolk
County, derives the name from Assopstauk (as
he finds it in the early records), "fish-net place."
That form belongs to Aspatuck Creek, no other
form of Assups appearing but that given above.
Trumbull's Indian Names in Connecticut gives:
" Ahyosupsuck (Mohegan): the outlet of a pond
now called Wyassup, also called Asupsuck, may
have come from the Massachusetts .and Narra-
gansett ashap, hashap, wild hemp, flax, or other
vegetable fibre used for making nets. "
28 Indian Place-Names
31. ATHSCAR: a small stream in Islip town.
It rises in a locality called the Deer Swamp and
flows into the Orawoc Brook. It is traditional;
no early forms are to be found. The name is
probably much corrupted and may possibly even
be an error for Awixa. See Awixa.
32. AWIXA : a small stream of water in the
town of Islip near Bay Shore, between Penataquit
Creek and Orawac Brook. The neck on the west
was once known by the same title. The earliest
mention is in the Mowbray Indian deed, dated
May 30, 1701: "It consisted of two necks of
land bounded on the east by the brook Aweeksa.
The Mowbray homestead was on Aweeksa Neck,
near the brook, which is now regarded as the
boundary line between the villages of Bay Shore
and Islip." (Munsell's Hist. Suffolk Co.) Mod-
ernly the name appears as Awixa. The word
Aweeksa corresponds to the Massachusetts (Eliot)
weeqsha, weeqshau, wehqshi, or weehqshik, "it
extends to," "goes as far as," "is the end," or
"limit," as in Eliot's Bible (2 Chron. xx., 16)
wehqshik sepueses,' "end of the brook." It was
frequently used, in its various changes, as a bound
mark, and appears in the above deed of 1701,
as the eastern limit of the above tract of land
the Indians having sold "as far as" this brook
Aweeksa. A brook in Connecticut, being the east
bound of the territory claimed by the Pequots,
On Long Island 29
was called Weexcodowa from the equivalent term
in Pequot-Mohegan (Trumbull's Indian Names in
33. BASSALONA: high sandy bluffs at Russell's
Neck, near Sag Harbor. On the maps Barcelona.
The name is traditional and frequently pronounced
as above. It does not appear in the early records.
A hill of similar appellation appears in Chepachet,
R, I., as "Absalona." If of Indian origin, its
meaning has not been ascertained. It has been
suggested by an old sea captain that the name was
taken from the city of Barcelona in Spain, the
bluffs resembling those at that city. If this be
true, the word is not Indian.
34. BONDYQUOGUE. See Ponquogue.
35. BOSTWICKS: a harbor and creek on Gardi-
ner's Island. Probably not Indian, but the name
of a man who once had charge of the Island as an
overseer. Sometimes varied as Bostick and Bostic.
It seems that John Lyon Gardiner, the seventh
proprietor of the Island, did not know the origin
of this name, for in an old memorandum book,
under date of 1798, he notes a number of Indian
place-names of which he is to ask the meaning from
the surviving Montauks. Among these appears
36. CACHINNCAK: a brook in the town of Islip,
3O Indian. Place-Names
now called the Orawac. It is mentioned in the
settlement of a controversy between Anning Mow-
bray and Wm. Nicoll, Oct. 31, 1794, viz.: "deter-
mined the head of said River to be at a certain
maple tree standing about one rod north of where
an old road crosses the head of sd brook or River
and from thence west and by south until the
head of Cachinncak River bears south." (Copy
by O. B. Ackerly, Esq.) This name bestowed by
the whites on the brook, according to the above
settlement, did not belong there originally; but
was a boundary mark of the original tract at the
head of the river. The mark may have been the
above "maple tree," a pile of stones, or a stake,
and simply designated "the place of beginning."
The name Cachinnc-ak, corresponds to the Massa-
chusetts (Eliot) kutchinnik, kitchinnik (Cotton),
"the beginning," with the addition of a locative
termination -ak, "place." See Cagoqunk and
37. CAGOQUNK, Cagaqunk: creek in Islip town,
now called Awixa Brook. In the Indian deed to
John Mowbray, May 30, 1701 , for Aweeksa Neck, it
"was bounded west by Watchague running North-
ward from the heads of Cagaqunk and Penata-
quitt Rivers to the bounds between the North
and South Indians." Also appears as Cagoqunk.
(Copy from O. B. Ackerly, Esq., N. Y.) This
name did not originally belong to the brook, but
On Long; Island 31
simply described the extent of the grant to John
Mowbray, as given by the Indians to the inter-
preter, and misunderstood probably, as the name
of the stream by the person who drew the deed,
it being stated and understood that the Indians
had conveyed all the land that they owned between
those rivers, up to the boundary line between the
north and south. Cagoqunk denotes "the whole
width (to the river), " "as wide as (to the river). "
It parallels the Delaware (Zeisberger) elgigunk,
"as big," "as wide"; elgigunk-haki "as big and
wide as the earth is"; and Chippewa (Baraga)
enigokwag-aki, "as wide as the earth is." See
38. CANAPAUKAH: the north branch of New-
town Creek at Long Island City. Sometimes
known as the "Dutch Kills." Mentioned in the
Indian deed of July 9, 1666, as being: "A small
creek called by the Indians Canapaukah, where
Burger's mill stands." (Riker's Annals of New-
town , p. 72.) An abbreviation of the word seen
in Narragansett wau-kaunopauk-ut, "at the
fenced water-place." No doubt referring to the
mill-dam (from wau-kaunosint, "fence"; -pauk,
"water-place"; -ut, "at").
39. CANARSIE: a village at Flatlands, King's
Co. This part of Long Island was settled by the
Dutch very early; in fact New Amersfort or
3 2 Indian Place-Names
Flatlands is now acknowledged to have been the
first white settlement on Long Island. The local-
ity was the headquarters of the tribe known as
the Canarsies. The earliest appearance of the
name is dated January 21, 1647, viz: "We Wil-
lem Kieft have given and granted to George
Baxter and Richard Clof, with their associates a
certain tract of land situate on the south side of
Long Island called Canarsie with all the meadows
belonging." (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 61.)
Variations are: Connarie See (Jamaica Bay), 1606;
Conor asset, 1656; "Piece of meadow land near the
Canarisse," 1661 ; Canary ssen, 1666; Canause, 1666;
Canarisea, 1680; Kanarsingh, 1719. This name is
an abbreviation, and as is frequently the case
where the word has been a long time in use, it has
been softened. It will be noticed that the English
form Conor as set differs from the Dutch, although
the pronunciation is about the same. It may be
considered as the parallel of the Narragansett
Wau-kaunosint; Massachusetts (Eliot) Won-kon-
sin, (Cotton) Wo-kons>sin; Abnaki (Rasle) d-
kaur<S)zen; Micmac (Rand) W6-kaloosdn, "a
fence," "fort," "hedge," etc. With the locative
-ing or -es-et it means "at or about the fence or
fort"; in fact, "the fenced place" is the significa-
tion of Canarsie. We cannot state positively at
this late date whether the name belonged originally
to the "fenced village" of the tribe or to the whole
territory, as it was afterwards applied by both
On Long Island 33
the Dutch and English. The Dutch manured
and planted the lands here many years with con-
sent of the Indians before any purchase was made,
as stated in the Nicoll patent of 1667. Conse-
quently the lands were more or less fenced in, both
that of the Dutch and also that planted by the
natives. This is reiterated in the Indian deed of
April 1 6, 1665, when: "Wametappack, Sachem
of Canryssen and (others named) lawful owners of
Canaryssen and the appendages thereunto apper-
taining sold to the inhabitants of New Amers-
foort a parcel of land with conditions that the
purchasers once for always a fence shall set at Can-
arissen for the protection of the Indians' cultiva-
tion, which fence shall thereafter by the Indians
be maintained and the land which becomes inclosed
in fence shall by the Indian owners above men-
tioned all their lives be used." (Stiles's Hist.
King's Co., p. 71.) From this and the fact that
their village was called Keskaechquerem I incline to
the belief that the name belongs to all the territory
that was fenced, until at last there was nothing
left to the Indians but the small portion fenced in
at the present Canarsie. See Conorasset.
40. CANTASQUNTAH : a brook in the town and
village of Islip, sometimes called the "Widow's
Brook." This name is recorded in the Indian
deed from the Sachem Winnequaheagh to William
Nicoll, Nov. 29, 1683, viz.: "all that tract of
34 Indian Place-Names
land . . . bounded on the east by a certain river
called Conetquot, on the south by the sound (bay) ,
on the west by a certain river called Cantasquntah,
on the north by a right line from the head of the
said river called Conetquot to the head of the said
river called Cantasquntah. " (Thompson's L. I.,
vol. i., p. 444.) The name appears also as Cantas-
quntha. (Munsell's Hist. S. C., Islip.) This name
denotes "a place where the great reeds or rushes
grow." Cant-asqunt-ah corresponds to Massachu-
setts keht-asquet-auke, "great reed place." It is
"the principal place of reeds" in that vicin-
ity. The components of the word are keht-,
"great," "chief"; asquet or askket, "reed"; -auke,
41. CANTIAQUE, Cantiagge: point of trees on
the bounds between the towns of Hempstead and
Oyster Bay. This bound-mark appears in the
first conveyance for land by the Indians in 1653,
viz.: "and bounded near southerly by a point of
trees called Cantiaque" (Thompson's L. I., vol. i.,
p. 485); Andros Patent, 1677: " from thence west-
erly along the middle of said plains till it bears
south from the said Robert Williams marked tree
at a point of trees called Cantiaque" (Thompson's
L. /., vol. i., p. 489); Dongan's Patent for Hemp-
stead, 1685: "and from thence up a direct line
till it comes to a marked tree on the east side of
Cantiagge Point" (Thompson's L. /., vol. ii., p.
On Long Island 35
15). This name designates ' ' where trees are being
blazed." The same radical is found in the Dela-
ware (Zeisberger) gischhaque, "to cut with an
axe"; Chippewa (Baraga) MshMgaige, "I chop
wood"; kikaige, "I make marks on the road, set-
ting up branches, etc."; nintchigandaweige, "I cut
off branches"; Micmac (Rand) kdktaaga, "to chop
all." (For Robert Williams's marked tree see
Kiscasutta.} The name of the chief of the Hacken-
sack tribe, called Cantaqua (Nelson's Ind. of N. J.,
1894, P- J 3 2 ) ma Y De a related word. After him
Cantaqua 's Creek, a tributary of the Hackensack
River was named.
42. CASTATEUM, Cashuteyie: meadows near
Flatlands, King's Co. Nine Indians (named) by
deed dated June 16, 1626, convey to Jacobus Van
Corlaer the following: "the middlemost of three
flats belonging to them called Castuteeuw situate
on the Island called by them Sewanhacky"; same
date: "the westermost of the flats called Kesta-
teuw;" July 16, 1636: "eastermost of the three
flats called Casteteuw" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv.,
p. 3). Variations are Cashuteyie, 1638; Castateum,
(De Kay). Furman (Antiq. of L. I., p. 180) gives
the "westermost flat" as Kaskutensuken. This
name simply designated the tract of salt meadows
which both the Dutch and English in the early
days valued more, for the grass they produced,
than they did the bordering upland. The word
36 Indian Place-Names
Kestateuw, Casteteuw=Kes-asketu, "where grass is
cut or mowed."
43. CATACONNOCK: Great Neck near Setau-
ket, Brookhaven town, supposed to be the neck
of land now known as "Old Fields." We find it
as follows: " This writing witnesseth that Wyan-
dance, Sagamore of Long Island, doe promise to
sell the Great neck, to the Inhabitants of Setaul-
cott. Memorandum: "The name of the neck
aboves'd is Cataconnocke, March 8, 1866." (B.
H. R., vol. i., p. 1 6.) Thompson (L. I., vol. i.,
p. 431) has Cometico. Cata- is a form of kehti,
kehte, or keit, as Eliot writes it, varied by other
writers as cot, cat, cata, etc., signifying "chief,"
"principal," "great," etc.; -connock corresponds
to the Massachusetts komuk, "an enclosed place."
' ' The enclosed place ' ' might have been a palisadoed
village of the Indians, where the chief resided, or a
"place," "land," "a field," limited not extended,
shut in by water or otherwise. In fact it might
apply to a "neck of land" making the word the
equivalent of the English "Great Neck." See
44. CATAWAMUCK: Crab Meadow, Huntington
town. See Arhakaamunk.
45. CATCHAPONACK: see Ketchaponack.
46. CATSJEYICK : Dutch notation for Curchaug,
On Long Island 37
Southold. This form of Curchaug is found in the
Dutch Archives, first in a treaty dated May 29,
1645, when " Wittaneymen, Sachem of Shinne-
cock, appears before the council declaring to be
impowered by his brethren, naming among others
Mamawichtouw (Momoweta) , Sachem of Cats-
jeyick," and again in 1647: "when deputies from
Hemsteade report that the chief of Catsjaock and
his brethren at the east end of Long Island had
agreed with other Indians to kill the English at
Heemsteede. It was then agreed to send Secre-
tary Van Tienhoven who understands the Indian
language to the east end of the Island in a sloop to
enquire of the chief, whether the above report be
true or not. It is also resolved to present the
Chief of Catsjajock and his brethren with three
cloth coats and some trifles in the name of the
Hon ble company." See Cutchogue.
47. CATUMB: reef of rocks at the east end of
Fisher's Island, Long Island Sound (U. S. Coast
Survey Map). See Ketumpscut.
48. CAUMSETT: Lloyd's Neck, Huntington
town. This name is found recorded in the Indian
deed of Sept. 20, 1654: "This writing witnesseth
that I Ratiocan Sagamore of Cow Harbor, have
sold unto Samuel Mayo, Daniel Whitehead and
Peter Wright my neck of land which makes the
east side of Oyster Bay, and the west side of Cow
38 Indian Place-Names
Harbor on the north side bounded with the sound,
called by the Indians Caumsett (H. R., vol. i., p.
4). This name signifies "at, about, or in the
neighborhood of a sharp rock," from the words
seen in Narragansett (R. Williams) cau "sharp,"
ompsk orm's "a rock," cduompsk, "a whetstone"
or a "rock suitable for sharpening"; and Massa-
chusetts (Eliot) koiompsk," " sharp rock. " With
the diminutive form of the locative the name is
Cau-omps-es-et. On this neck probably still re-
mains a rock of gritty nature, to which the Indians
came in order to sharpen their stone implements,
or it may have been simply a sharp pointed rock.
"Boulders of granular white limestone occur on
Lloyd's Neck" (Thompson's L. /., vol. i., p. 59).
49. CAUS CUNG QUARAM : neck of land in the
town of Babylon. See Guscomquorum.
50. CAUSHAWASHA: A swamp on Hashamo-
muk Neck, Southold town. One of the bounds
of the neck referred to in 1 66 1, viz.: "The utter-
most part of the said Land beginninge from the
northeast at a pond called by the Minnapaugs,
so to a greate swampe called in the Indean tounge
Caushawasha by the east side of Dismal to a
certain creek the Indeans call Paugetuck on the
south side" (S. R.,vol. i., p. 210); again in 1686:
"to run from sd black oake to a white oak att a
swamp as they call Causawashowy" (S. R., vol. ii.,
On Long Island 39
p. 277). Caushawsha corresponds to the Narra-
gansett (R. Williams) cutshausha; Massachusetts
(Eliot) kutshaumune, "the lightning." It was
probably the name of an Indian who located his
wigwam and corn fields near the swamp. Personal
names were frequently given to swamps where
the Indians lived by the English settlers. These
being favorite abiding places of the natives on
account of the living springs, running brooks, and
their sheltered positions. Nearly every one in the
vicinity of Sag Harbor has on its northerly side
a shell-deposit showing aboriginal sojourners in
51. CHEBIAKINNAUSUK, Chabiakinnauhsuk: a
locality in the "North Neck," Montauk. One of
the bounds of the Wuchebesuck purchase, men-
tioned in the Indian deed of 1670, viz.: "so on
a straight line to Chebiakinnausuck" (Hedges'
Address, 1849). Ranger's Deeds, 1840, has Cha-
biakinnauhsuk. This bound-mark was located at a
long brook one of the many outlets of the swamps
that dot this section ; but the name probably does
not refer to the brook itself, as the writer once sup-
posed from its terminal affix. (See Names in East
Hampton, E. H. R., vol. iv.) The prefix chebia-
or chabia- in this compound name is an equiva-
lent for the Massachusetts (Eliot) chabenuk,
"that which divides or separates," "a bound-
mark;" as in Job xxxviii., 25, Howan chachaubenuk
40 Indian Place-Names
nippee poohsem ut, "who hath divided the water
course. " The second part corresponds to kinnau-
suk, the Massachusetts (Eliot) kuhkinneausuk "you
mark," kuhkinneasu, "he marketh." Chabia-
kinnausuk thus signifies the marked separation,
"where he marketh bounds, " " a boundary place,"
52. CHECKACHAGIN : a brook in the town of
Oyster Bay, Queen's Co., flowing northeasterly
into Beaver Swamp Creek. Two of the variants
from the records of the town are Chaugren, Cho-
gorin. Geo. W. Cocks, Esq., of Glen Cove, in-
forms me that he remembers it as a boy fifty years
ago, colloquially, as " C hoggin. " The name is a
personal one from one of the chiefs, " Chechagon
alias Quaropin," mentioned in an Indian deed of
January 9, 1683. (Thompson's L. I., vol. i., p.
53. CHEQUIT: a name formerly given to the
point of land on Shelter Island where the S. I.
Heights Ass'n have erected a hotel and many
cottages, now called Prospect. The name is
derived from a fish that is caught in the waters in
the spring, called by the whites after the name
Cheguit or Chickwick; in other parts of the Country
it is sometimes called Squeteage, Suchermaug, and
Shecutts, by the English "weak-fish." According
to W. R. Gerard (in Handb. of Amer. Inds. N. of
On Long Island 41
Mexico, vol. i. p. 316), squeteague is a corruption
of the Narragansett pesakweteauag, "they make
glue," in reference to the use of the "sounds" of
the fish by the Indians for making a glutinous sub-
stance. It is doubtful whether chequit is, as some
have thought, a corruption of squeteague. (A.F.C.)
54. CHOCOMOUNT: "a hill on Fisher's Island,
Coast Survey Map, not Indian, or, unless much
corrupted, of Indian origin" (Trumbull's Indian
Names in Connecticut}.
55. CHOGGIN: a brook in Oyster Bay town,
Queen's Co. See Checkachagin.
56. CHOPPAUHSHAPAUGAUSUCK: a locality on
Montauk being the ditch (so-called) or the outlet of
the Great Pond on the south, from which "Ditch
Plain" derives its name (E. H. R., vol. ii., p. 206).
This boundary place is mentioned in the deed of
1670 (sometimes called the nine-score acre pur-
chase, or land between the ponds), viz.: "and so
along to the sea-side to a place called Choppauh-
shapaugausuck" (Hedges' Address, 1849), Cop-
pauhshapaugausuk (Ranger's Deeds, 1850). The
first three syllables, chop-pauhsha, are the equivalent
of the Massachusetts chippachaug, "a separated
place," "apart separated," from chippai (Eliot),
"a part," or "portion" (as in Ezekiel xlv., I,
chippai ohke, "portion of land;" Leviticus xvi., 22,
42 Indian Place-Names
chip ohkeit, "land uninhabited," "land apart");
pausha corresponds to paushinum (Eliot) "he di-
vided or separated. " (Ps. Ixxviii., 13.) The third
part represents paugaus (Eliot), "to widen," "to
operate;" the terminal affix -suck, "an outlet," or
"a small stream flowing out of a pond," "a
brook." Altogether we thus have Chop-pausha-
paugau-suck, which therefore means "the place of
separation where the brook opens out." See
57. COBB : a farming district at Southampton,
L. I. We find this name first recorded in 1652,
when: "It was granted by the towne unto Mr.
Henry Eason, that he should have to the quantity
of three acres any parcell of land hee shall find
fitt for his use near unto Mr. Odell his 4 acres in
Cobs pound" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. 86). For fifty
years the locality is so designated, afterward it be-
comes simply Cobb, and as such was handed down
to the present day. The reasons that gave rise to
the name have been forgotten for generations,
although the oldest inhabitant and common con-
sent derive it from aboriginal sources. In an
article in the Sag Harbor Express, March n, 1888,
the writer suggested its origin from the material
of which the pound may have been built, viz. :
Cob "clay" mixed with straw for walls, etc.
(Webster). Mr. Geo. R. Howell, of the N. Y.
State Library, Albany, suggests its derivation
On Long Island 43
from Cob, an Indian, who may have been the
pound-keeper; hence "Cob's pound." This sug-
gestion may be a correct one, but it is possible
that Cob might be the name of a negro as well.
A "Moses' pound" is mentioned in the Hunting-
ton Records, and a "Chestnut pound" in the
Brookhaven Records, thus showing a personal
and a material derivation. I doubt the aboriginal
58. COCHIMINCHOAKE, Chikemenckoake: Mo-
riches Island. Mentioned in a law suit between
John Cooper, plaintiff, and John Ogden, defend-
ant, held at New York, Oct. 30-31, Nov. 1-2-4,
1667, in regard to whales cast up on the beach.
59. COCKENOE'S Island: off Westport, Conn.,
near the mouth of Saugatuck River; so-called
from its Indian proprietor, Cockeno, Cockenow, or
Chachaneu. In the deed to the proprietors of
Norwalk, 1652, he is called "Cockenow de Long
Island" (Hall's Norwalk, p. 35), and this seems
to identify him with " Chekanoe, an Indian of
Menhansick [Shelter] Island, named in Col. Rec.,
iii., 476 (Trumbull's Indian Names in Connecti-
cut, p. li). Probably he was the Indian called
by the Montauk Sachem "my agent Chockanoe
or Checkenow. " He seemed to have acted as inter-
preter and laid out the bounds of many of the
44 Indian Place-Names
early purchases on Long Island from the Indians
(H. R., vol. i., p. 17). This name, Cheekanoo,
Cockenoe, Chickino, Chekkonnow, or Cockoo no
matter how varied in the records of Long Island
and elsewhere, for every Town Clerk or Recorder,
with but a limited or no knowledge of the Indian
tongue and its true sounds, wrote down the name
as it suited him, and seldom twice alike even on
the same page, finds its parallel in the Massa-
chusetts of both Eliot and Cotton, in the verb
kuhkinneau, or kehkinnoo, "he marks, observes,
takes knowledge, instructs, or imitates"; hence,
"he interprets," and therefore indicating, by a
free translation, "an interpreter or teacher"; this
word in its primitive form occurs in all dialects of
the same linguistic family (that is, the Algonkian)
in an infinite number of compounds, denoting
"a scholar ; teacher ; a thing signified ; I say what he
says i.e., repeat after him, etc." See my Cocke-
noe de Long Island (N. Y., 1896) for a full his-
tory of this Indian.
60. COEKWAS: creek on Rockaway Neck,
Hempstead town. According to the records of
March 2, 1682: " Enamant and Mongowack,
Indians of Recowack petition that their gift to Jan
(John) Hansen and others of a neck of land, in the
north west point of Racowack, beginning at a
certain creek called Coekwas, running thence south
by west to another kill (or creek) called Hapax
On Long Island 45
be confirmed" (Cal. of Land Papers in Office
of the Sec'y of State, p. 25). See Copwax.
61. COMAC, Comack: " formerly called Winne-
Comack, is a pleasant cross-road village situated
in the eastern part of Huntington town on the
middle country road of Smithtown turnpike, and
partly within the bounds of Smithtown. It is an
ancient settlement, and is located in the midst
of a rich agricultural district. The surface is
level, or slightly rolling and the soil heavy and
nearly every acre under a high state of cultivation"
(Bayles's Sketches of Suffolk Co.). See Winne-
62. COMETICO: the Indian name of Old Field's
Point, Brookhaven town (De Kay). This was
probably taken from Thompson (L. I., vol. i., p.
431). Mr. Thompson does not give his authority
and the writer had been unable to find any other,
and considers it a mistake of Mr. Thompson for
Cataconnock. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for
1889 I derived it from a personal name or the
same as given in Trumbull's Indian Names in
Connecticut, viz.: Ske'-kom J -eko; modern Chicomi-
co; an Indian village, about two miles south of the
present village of Pine Plains, Dutchess Co., N. Y.
A Moravian mission station, 174044, on Chicomico
Creek which runs northwesterly through Pine
Plains township, perpetuates the name, which
46 Indian Place-Names
local tradition misinterprets "Little mountain."
It is obviously formed from "she," "die," for
mishe, or k'che, "great," and komuk (Eliot) or
comaco, "house" or "inclosed place." The place
may have been so denominated (like weramo-
comaco, in Virginia, and Narragansett sachimma-
comonock, "sachem's house") from the "great
lodge" of some chief, or because here was the
"great village" of the tribe. This quotation
from Trumbull shows Cataconnock to be nearer
the true form than Cometico. See Cataconnock.
63. COMPOWAMS: a neck of land in the town
of Islip, west of Bay Shore. The brook which
bounds it on the east was called by the same name,
now known as the "Bay Shore Brook," and one
time designated as "Thompson's Brook." On
Sept. i, 1701, the Indians sold to Thomas Willets
two necks of land called Manetuc and Watchogue,
"bounded west by the river called Compowams,
east by the river called Watchogue, south by the
salt-bay, and to extend northward, keeping the
full breadth of said necks, as far as the north side
of the pines." On "June i, 1703, the Indians
conveyed to Oloff, Philip and Stephen Van Cort-
land, a neck called Compowams, having the neck
called Mantash on the east, and a neck called
Missatuck on the west, extending northward into
the woods from the Indian path five English
miles" (Thompson's L. /., vol. i., p. 447). Varia-
On Long Island 47
tions are Compowis, Compowms, Compauwams.
From the mark of the English possessive the word
appears to be an Indian's personal name. Perhaps
the name may be the equivalent of the Massachu-
setts (Eliot) Kuppohham, "he closes "; Kuppuhon,
"door." (A. F. c.)
64. CONEGUMS: a creek at Mattituck, South-
old town. In the Indian deed, dated March 20,
1648: " Uxoquepassem or Puammis Sachem, to-
gether with his three brothers, viz. : " Weewacup,
Nowconneey, Neesautquaggus convey to Mr. Theo-
philus Eaton, Governor of New Haven, and to Mr.
Steven Goodyear, Deputy Governor, all that
their land lying between Conchake and Ucquebaak,
commonly called Mattatuck, bounded on the East
with the creek Conegums and the way leading
thence to Mattatuck pond, for drawing over their
canoes" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 77). The original
deed, in a dilapidated condition, but still legible, is
in the possession of the Long Island Historical
Society. This stream is now known as "Reeve's
Creek" and is near the boundary between South-
old and Riverhead towns. The Mattituck pond
(so-called) is the sheet of water now designated
as Mattituck Bay. Between the two in ancient
times the Indians were accustomed to drag their
canoes across, as mentioned above; this gave it
the name, which occurs in the oldest records of
Southold, of Canoe place. The signification is
48 Indian Place-Names
"a boundary," because it was the east bounds
of the above tract of land. See Kanungum.
65. CONNECTICUT: a creek or river in Brook-
haven town, now called Carman's River. By
some, this and the following name might be
considered as taken from the well-known river
of New England, but it was not, these having
been so-named at a very early period. In fact it
was a common appellation for long streams of
water. In Wyandance's deed for meadow, at
Mastic, 1657, we find: "Two great necks of
meadow lying from a river called Connecticut and
so to a river called Wegonthotak" (B. H. R.,
vol. i.), and in 1674: "that lyeth between a
river called Conitticut to another called Mastic"
(B. H. R., vol. i., p. 33). This river in the early
days was sometimes designated as "East Con-
necticut" in distinction to the one mentioned
66. CONNETQUOT: river or creek in the town
of Islip, sometimes called Nicoll's River, or more
often Connetquot brook. The Southside Club
House is located on this beautiful stream of water.
In the early days it was sometimes termed the
1 ' West Connecticut. ' ' Thus in 1 662 : ' ' West Cun-
iticutt or meadow that they bought this Conitu-
cutt situate betwixt Unkachak and Sequatake"
(B. H. R., vol. i., p. 36). In an Indian deed to
On Long; Island 49
Wm. Nicoll, 1683: "all that tract of land situate,
lying and being on the Southside of Long Island,
bounded on the east by a certain river called
Conetquot" (Thompson's L. /., vol. i., p. 444).
This name and the previous one are derived from
Quinni- (qunnih- in Eliot; variations quonne,
conne, etc.), "long"; -tukq, "a tidal river or
creek"; the locative -ut, "at." The whole word
quonne-tukq-ut thus signifies, "at the long river."
67. CONORASSET: a name said to have been
applied by the Indians to a tract of land now
included in the town of Jamaica. It is found
so recorded in a petition to Peter Stuyvesant,
Governor General of New Netherlands, March 10,
1656, viz.: "The place they desire and have
alreadie petitioned for is called Conorasset and
lies from a River which divides it from the
Conorie see to the bounds of heemsteade and
may containe about twentie families." In the
permit granted by the Dutch the land is called
'' Canaresse" (Col. Hist. N. F., vol. xiv., pp.
339 34) A variant is Canorasset (De Kay). It
was part of the territory of the Canarsies and
takes its name from the headquarters of that
tribe. See Canarsie.
68. CONUNGUM, or Conungam: "about midway
between Manorville and Riverhead lies the settle-
50 Indian Place-Names
ment of Calverton. The locality preserves the
ancient name of Conungam, Riverhead" (Mun-
sell's Hist. S. C.). See Kanungum.
69. COOSPUTUS: ''one of the smaller necks of
land into which Mastic Neck, is divided" (Bayles's
Hist. Suffolk Co., also Munsell's Hist. S. C.). Pos-
sibly a variation of Poospatuck. See Poospatuck.
70. COPECES : a locality at the head of Three
Mile Harbor, East Hampton town. According
to the records, on "Sept. 20, 1705, Jeremiah Miller
exchanged meadow ground lying at or near the
head of Three Mile Harbor at a place called
Copeces" (E. H. R., vol. iii., p. 139). The head
of this harbor is inclosed or shut in by a point of
land and meadow, leaving a very narrow passage
into the inner harbor or cove, which makes it a
sheltered place for the boats of the fishermen who
live in the vicinity, as it must also have been for
the canoes of the red man who made this section a
favorite resort, indicated by the numerous shell-
heaps now whitening the shores and bluffs. The
name is the equivalent of the Narragansett
aucupawese, Massachusetts, kuppi-es, "little
cove," literally, "little place of shelter." The
word is derived from kuppi, "shut in," "shel-
tered" ; -es, diminutive suffix. See Copiag, Copwax.
71. COPIAG: a neck of land in the western part
On Long; Island 51
of Babylon town, south of the settlement known
as Breslau. One of the necks of meadow sold by
the Indians in 1658, names of the same not being
given. In a deed of 1666, we find: "passell of
meddow . . . being in a neck comonly called by
the Indians Coppiage" (H. R., vol. i., p. 84).
Variations are Copyag, 1693; Cuppuauge, 1698.
On modern maps the name appears as Copiag.
Trumbull in his Indian Names in Connecticut
gives the following etymology for a name of
similar form: "The name denotes a 'harbor,'
or ' place of shelter ' ; literally a ' place shut in. '
Massachusetts kuppi, "closed"; kobkog, "haven,"
' ' harbor ' ' ; Narragansett aukup (we have an equi-
valent for this name in Quebec; and also in the
modern Cape Poge formerly Capeack, Capawack,
etc., on Martha's Vineyard)." Eliot also uses
the name for "forest," "woods," etc. The
neck Kuppi-auke was so called, because it was
"land shut in," by the zneadows by which it is
nearly surrounded, from the "forest" that covered
it, or perhaps some "sheltered harbor" at or
near it. The components of the word are kuppi,
"shut in," "sheltered;" -auke, "place." See
72. COPWAX : creek on Rockaway Neck, Hemp-
stead town, Queen's Co. The records of March
20, 1684, mention a "tract of land lying at a
creek called Oppeax, and so running to another
52 Indian Place-Names
called Copwax" (Cal. of Land Papers, Sec'y of
State's Office, p. 27). It is named as Coekwas in
an entry of 1682. The word is the same as the
previous name, with slight variation. The creek
was possibly a ' ' place of shelter ' ' for canoes. John
Smith and others call the locality on Martha's
Vineyard, Capawack or Capawac.
73. CORAM, Corum: a farming hamlet in
Brookhaven on the old country road, near the
geographical centre of the town. Another small
settlement about two miles southeast is known as
" Coram Hills." Many of the Long Island his-
torians derive this name from one of the native
chiefs. Munsell, e. g.,from Caraway. This name
appears on a deed of 1673 as Cor away or Puding
(B. H. R., vol. i., p. 43). In an order to Richard
Woodhull, dated Aug. 13, 1677, we find: "that
the new way designed and ordered in Governor
Nicoll's time through the middle of the Island
(the old country road) . . . bee nott only re-
marked but sufficiently cleared of brush . . . and
that hee settle a farm ... at or about Mon-
corum" (Col. Hist, of N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 729).
Again in 1730: "wee have layed oute to John
Smith the land granted to William Satterly about
Wincoram" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 121). Modernly
Coram or Corum. Coram or Corum Hill is found
in Huntington, Conn. (Trumbull's Indian Names
in Conn., p. 12). Wine cor em occurs in a deed of
On Long Island 53
1738. "At or about Moncorum" shows that the
range of hills which rises up so plainly from
the plains north of Patchogue now known as the
Cor am Hills was the locality intended for a farm.
The same name occurring in Connecticut applied
to a hill shows that we must look to some charac-
teristic of the hills for its meaning. Therefore,
instead of being derived from some Indian chief, I
regard it as the equivalent of the Massachusetts
(Eliot) ma)nouhkoiyeum, "a valley," "low coun-
try," shortened into Moncorum and afterwards
into Coram. It probably referred to a passage
between ther hills or some valley near them.
74. COSTEYICK: "place of uncertain location, "
(De Kay's Names on L. /.). This is Dutch, and
not Indian by some means taken from the proper
name of Peter Cornelissen Costelyick, Master of
the "Pine Apple" in 1648 (Col. Hist. N. F.,
vol. xiv., p. 86).
75. COTSJEWAMINCK: This form of the name
of Shelter Island, and islands adjacent, is found
on record in a treaty of 1645. It is the Dutch
notation for Ahaquatuwamuck. See Manhansack-
Ahaquatuivamock, also Mochgonnekonck.
76. COWAMOKE: "A locality in Smithtown,
(De Kay). "The Indian name of Fresh Ponds,
a small settlement in the northwestern part of
54 Indian Place-Names
the town [Smithtown] was called Cowamok"
(Thompson's L. I., vol. i., p. 460). It is probable
that Mr. Thompson is in error and gives us Cowa-
mok for Unshemamuck. De Kay's authority is
probably Thompson. Possibly this form of the
name might be translated as "pine tree place,"
corresponding to the Massachusetts karwa; Narra-
gansett (R. Williams) cowaw, "pine tree"; -auke,
"land" or "place." See Unshemamuck.
77. CUMSEWOGUE : a farming district upon the
high level plain, about a mile south of Port Jeffer-
son, Brookhaven town. The only early record
we have been able to find is as follows: In 1805
the Commissions of Highways are called "to view
a road or highway near Setauket at a place called
Comsewague" (B. H. R., vol. ii., p. 97). A variant
is Cumsewage, 1835. Modernly the name is
Cumsewogue. A post-office having been estab-
lished here, the name in accordance with orders
from the P. O. Department, has been changed to
Echo, which is to be regretted. This name prob-
ably refers to some road or trail originally estab-
lished by the Indians and afterwards used by
the whites as was frequently the case. Earlier
forms would probably show that it was derived
from the word corresponding to the Delaware
(Zeisberger) pomsi; Unkechaug (Jefferson) copu-
musah; Mohegan (Edwards), kepumseh, "thou
walkest"; Chippewa (Baraga) bimossewin; Algon-
On Long Island 55
kin (Mackenzie) pemoussai, "to walk." The same
radicals appear in the Narragansett (R. Williams) ,
yo-cuppummesicommin, "cross over into the way
there." The etymology is, therefore, Cumsew-
auke, "a walking place. "
78. CUPSAGE : a locality on the Great South
Beach, opposite Eastport, Southampton town.
The place is probably referred to in an entry of Jan.
15, 1662, viz.: "Part of the Shinnecock Indians
. . . doe say that they have given and made over
all their land from Niamack over to the old gutt,
westward unto Capt. Topping with all their
interest in the beach" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 27).
In 1693 : " near a place called Cupsawege about a
mile and a half from the gut near a place called
the green pines" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 85). Other
records give Capswague, 1693 ; Cup Soak gutt, 1700.
In 1703 we find in the town records: "And west-
erly from an Inlett out of ye sea or mane otion
comonly known as Copsoage , gut" (S. H. R., vol.
ii., p. 177). Still other variants are: Cupsage,
1712; Cupsouge gut, 1712; Cupsoge, 1768. This
name is derived from the equivalent of the Mas-
sachusetts (Eliot), kuppi, "closed," "shut in,"
etc., and -sauk, "an inlet " or "outlet " (of a body
of water). The meaning of Kup-sauk is thus an
"inlet that closes or shuts up," "a shut up inlet,"
" closed inlet." These passages of water, or guts, as
they are often termed, that connect the Great South
56 Indian Place-Names
Bay with the ocean, frequently close up, and
remain so, until a new one is formed by storms
or by digging. The beach is marked in many
places, where once the inlets poured their streams
into the broad Atlantic or vice versa (H. R., vol.
iii., p. 231, 238). See Seapoose.
79. CUTCHOGUE : post-office and farming ham-
let in Southold town. This name was originally
applied to a tract of land, on which one of the
Island tribes was located at the era of settlement.
On this tract still known as the "Fort Neck" (and
the original Corchauge) was located their palisaded
inclosure. The late J. Wickham Case wrote:
"The fort was eligibly and pleasantly situated
on the east side of the neck, on a declivity sloping
toward the creek, and close by a fine spring of
pure water, which rises on the shore just above
high water mark and flows into the creek, which
lies in close proximity to the fort. The lines of
embankment of earth, and the trenches which
surround the fort are still to be traced. An
excavation of considerable depth (probably the
store-house) is within the enclosure which em-
braces half or three-fourths of an acre" (S. R.
vol. i., p. 121). On July 21, 1891, by invitation
of the owner, Mr. Henry V. Downs, I visited the
spot and found it to be as described, with the
exception, that it is situated in a dense grove,
that has been undisturbed for many years. The
On Long Island 57
neighboring fields bordering the creek bear evi-
dences of wigwam sites. Shells, pottery sherds,
arrow-points, etc., are met with at every point.
This neck of land is both interesting and historical,
it being on record as having been visited both by
the Dutch and English on many occasions, per-
haps in 1633 by Winthrop in the "Blessing,"
and no doubt by James Farrett in his " Ketch"
in 1639-1640. The four forts of Paumanack
(Montauk's, Manhansett's, Shinnecock's, and Cor-
chaug's) bear close relationship to each other.
By signal fires or smoke from Shinnecock, to
Corchaug, thence to Shelter Island, thence to
the Nominick Hills on Montauk, or vice versa, the
four tribes could be brought together in a few
hours. No prominent Indian name on Long
Island has been more of a puzzle than this one,
owing to the curious way in which the English
spelled it; and yet, its etymology is very simple.
The Dutch seem to have caught the true sound
better than the neighboring settlers. This was
probably due to the fact that Secretary Cornelis
Van Tienhoven "who understands the Indian
language" recorded it. Variations are Cotsjeyick,
1645; Catsjaock, 1647; Car choke, 1648; Cor choke,
1648; Corchauge, 1648; Curchoug, 1660; Couch-
hauge, 1673; Cauchaug, 1677; Courchauge, 1677;
Corchogge, 1684; Cauchauk, 1704; Kachogue,
will of Wm. Wells, 1696. Modernly the word is
spelled Cutchogue. Catsjey, Catsja, Carch or Cough,
58 Indian Place-Names
= kehche, kehti or keihte (as Eliot variously writes
it) signifies "chief, " "pre-eminent," or "superior, "
"greatest," "principal," etc. Thus with the
locative termination -auke or -ock, we have Kehch-
auke, "the greatest or principal place " (of refuge
for the women and children of that tribe, and
where the Sachem lived, in fact his "headquar-
ters). Capt. John Smith (True Relation, p. 24)
mentions the "king of Kiskieck," and on the map
of Virginia (Genemll Historic} we find a king's
town called "Kiskiack," lying near the mouth of
the Pamunkey River. This is the Virginia equiva-
lent of our name. Ruttenber's suggested deriva-
tion from Maskutchoung cannot be correct.
80. CUTSGUNSUCK, Cussquontuck: a brook or
creek on the bounds between the towns of Brook-
haven and Smithtown at the village of Stony
Brook. Recorded Aug. 6, 1702: "Ordered that
a warrant bee given to the surveyor for the Laying
out of one hundred acres of land for Mr. Phillips
att a place comonly called Cutsgunsuck and in case
it prove to be within the bounds of Smithtown he
shall have the equivalent elsewhere" (B. H. R.,
vol., i. p. 94). Another entry gives it as "Cuts-
gunsuck. " The original award to the arbitrators,
Woodhull, Hallock and Townsend in 1736, divid-
ing Smithtown among the heirs and grantees of
Richard Smith, gives us: "Which lyeth at a place
called Cussquontuck. " A copy of the same in the
On Long Island 59
Town Clerk's office " Cutscwontock"; Andros pa-
tent, Smithtown, 1675: "bounded eastward by a
runne of water called Stony Brook"; Brookhaven
and Smithtown boundary award, 1725: "Do
judge and award that the head of the middle
branch of Stony Brook . . . shall be one of ye
bounds between ye said towns" (B. H. R., vol.
i. f p. 115). In this name we discover the Algon-
kian synonym for Stony Brook, corresponding to
Massachusetts qussuk (Cotton), "stone"; gussuk-
quanash (Eliot), "stones," "rocks," as in mukin-
numook qussukquanash, "gather stones" (Lev.
xxi., 46); qussukquanumit Bohan, "to the shore of
Bohan, " literally, "to the stones of Bohan,"
(Joshua xv., 6). This word is identical with the
Narragansett qussucqun, "heavy"; literally, "it
is heavy" (Trumbull's Notes, Narr. Club Reprint
of R. Williams's Key, p. 177). This finds its
counterpart in the Delaware ksucquon; Chippewa
kosigwan, "it is heavy." The terminal affix
seems to have been varied in the early records
from -suck, "a brook," or "outlet," to -tuck,
"a creek," "flowing stream," or "tidal river."
Thus we have qussucqun- suck, "stony brook,"
or qussucqun-tuck, "the stony creek."
8 1 . CUTUNOMACK : see Ketanomocke.
82. DICKEPECHEGANS : hills in Huntington,
now know as "Dix Hills." The early form as
60 Indian Place-Names
it appears nearly fifty years after the settlement
of the town, viz.: "dickepechegans, " 1689; dick-
petheyans," 1689; "dickepechegans," 1690; "dich-
pechegans," 1690 (H. R., vol. ii., pp. 25, 41, 66,
68), has all the attributes of a personal name in the
possessive case. Dick, an English name, has been
added to the aboriginal, as was frequently done
by both the whites and the Indians, and the name
given to the hills, because here was located the
wigwam of Dick Pechegan, and the fields that he
planted. His name appears on the Indian deed
as to Wm. Massey, dated 1692, as Pechegin
(H. R., vol. ii., p. 107).
83. EBWONS: neck of land, Brookhaven town
on Mastic, also called Rattlesnake Neck, lying
between Winocroscombs Neck and Floyd's Neck on
a survey of 1693, by Aug. Graham. This appears
not to be an Indian name, but is from a former
owner, "Samuel Eburn" of Setauket, who bought
it in 1684. See Winnecroscoms.
84. EGHQUAONS: Staten Island, Richmond
Co., N. Y. So-called in the Indian deed dated
July 10, 1657, viz.: "We the undersigned natives
of North America, hereditary owners of Staten
Island, certify and declare to have sold and con-
veyed to Lubbertus Van Dincklage, attorney for
his Noble Honor, Hendrick Van der Capellen tho
Ryssel the whole of Staten Island, by us called
On Long; Island 6l
Eghqiiaons" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 393).
This is the Dutch notation for Aquehonga. See
85. ENAUGHQUAMUCK : a locality named as
the limit of a grant by Wiandance, Sachem of
Pawmanack, to Lyon Gardiner in 1659: "for all
whales that might come ashore from the place
called Kitchaminfchoke unto the place called
Enoughquamuck" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 38).
Examination of the original records shows it to be
Enaughquamuck. The localities mentioned are
within the jurisdiction of Tobacus and Wine-
croscum, Sachems of Unkechaug, and they had
given their permission to the grant. The year
previous Wiandance sold to Lyon Gardiner the
right of herbage on the land covered by his grant,
viz.: "which beach begins Eastward at the west
end of Southampton bounds and westward where
it is separated by the water of the sea cominge
in out of the ocean sea southward with the
great sea, Northward by the Island water:
reserving the whales that shall be cast up"
(E. H. R., vol. i., p. 148). Winecroscum, in 1685,
denies having given his consent to this transfer,
(B. H. R., vol. i., p. 69). Enaughqu-amuck, "as
far as the fishing-place," was probably the inlet
mentioned in the above grant. Enaughqua is
the parallel of the Massachusetts (Cotton) un-
nuhkuquat, "as far as"; Narragansett, anunckqua,
62 Indian Place-Names
"at the end of, " "ending of either land or water, "
"to the extreme point," or "limit of," as in you-
anuckquoqua, "how big," "how far"; Chippewa
(Baraga), enigokwa aki "as wide as the earth is,"
enigokwadessing, "as it is wide." With the
locative -amuck, "a fishing-place," denotes "as
far as the fishing-place goes." See Kitchamin-
86. EQUENDITO: Barren Island, Flatlands,
King's Co. Mentioned in the Indian deed of
April 13, 1664: "We Wawmatt Tappa and Kacka-
washke, the right and true proprietors of a certain
island called by the Indians Equendito, and by
the English Broken Lands . . . said Island called
Equendito, etc." (Stiles's Hist. King's Co., p.
77.) The Island is now wholly composed of
white sand, and the area of the Island has very
considerably decreased within the memory of
persons now living. Years ago the Island was
destitute of trees, producing only sedge affording
coarse pasture. Sixty years ago cedar trees
sprang up over the Island furnishing a roosting
place for a vast number of crows. The Indian
name and its English one shows that it was cleared
by either the whites or the natives. The prob-
ability is that the drifting sand covered the
natural soil after it was cleared. The name is
an abbreviated form of a word corresponding to
the Massachusetts pequettah-ohke, "land opened
On Long Island 63
or broken up, " "land from which trees and bushes
have been removed to fit it for planting"; or else
(p)equen-ittuk, "cleared of trees " ; in fact, "broken
lands" as called by the English or Dutch.
87. ESSACHIAS: a small creek in the town of
Islip, mentioned as follows in a deed of 1714,
discovered by O. B. Ackerly, Esq.: "East of
Great River, and south east of Brickkiln Point,
two small creeks or runnes of water, called Weha-
hamis eastward and Essachias westward." Prob-
ably a personal name of an Indian resident near
or at the creek. It may be a variation of the
biblical name Zaccheus, as such names were fre-
quently bestowed on the Indians when converted.
88. GENISSEE: a swamp at Sag Harbor, where
the pumps and engine house of the Sag Harbor
Water Works are located. This name is found
mentioned in a deed of 1838, viz.: "That equal
undivided half or moiety of a certain lot of land
situated in the port of Sag Harbor, being lots
No. 2 and 3 in Genissee so called." This tract
was granted to Hubbard Latham by Southampton
town in 1804. At the beginning of the present
century the rich lands of the Genesee valley in
the western part of the State were becoming famous
and were being rapidly filled with the streams of
emigrants flowing west, hence the adoption of the
name in this section. The name is derived from
64 Indian Place-Names
Onondaga gennis-he-yo , "the beautiful valley,"
or "the pleasant valley," being thus of Iroquoian
origin. According to J. N. B. Hewitt (Handb.
of Inds. N. of Mex., vol. i., 1907, p. 489), the Seneca
Tyo'-nesi 'yo signifies, "there it has fine banks."
89. GEORGICA: a farming district in East
Hampton, between the village and Wainscot,
bordering on the sheet of water known as "Geor-
gica Pond." The earliest mention of the locality
is June 10, 1652: "Thomas Talmage senior two
ackers upon the Little plaine beitmore or lese
bounded with the hieway South Georgika West
and North and Mr. James East" (E. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 23). At a town meeting of June 19,
1657: "An Indian being asked how far Shinne-
cocks Indians bounds went . . . answered that
it went to george cake or Wainscot at the least
or there abouts" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. 114).
Variations are Jorgke, 1650; "4 acres laid out att
the neck of Georgika where Mr. Mulford formerly
mowed," 1667 (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 268); Georgeke,
1685; Georgekea, 1690; Jorgake, 1713; Georgicay,
1728; Georgake, 1731. This place derives its
name from an Indian who formerly lived on the
neck. Jeorgkee an Indian "goes to sea to kill
whales for Jacob Schillinger of East Hampton and
partners," as per agreement dated April 7, 1679
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 79). This derivation is also
the traditional one as handed down to Mr.
On L,on Island 65
Sineus Talmadge, the present owner of part of the
above tract of land. The signification of the name
has not been ascertained. It is possible, how-
ever, that it may be a corruption of the English
90. GILGO: an inlet from the ocean to the
"Great South Bay," between Oak Island and
Jones's Beach, Babylon town.
91. GONUX: a point of land on Great Hog
Neck or "Peconic Park," Southold town. So-
called from an Indian who was drowned in the
vicinity over one hundred years ago and buried
upon the point. The grave at one time was
marked by a stone on which was carved G. X.
The East Hampton Church Records, copied by
J. Lyon Gardiner, Esq., and preserved at Gardi-
ner's Island, contain the following entry: "1767,
June 5th. Moses Gonack, drowned." The word
is probably related to the Delaware gunaxin, "to
be long, to be tall, to be high, " gunaxu (Zeisberger),
"he is long, tall of stature"; Massachusetts
qunnunkqussu, "he is tall"; Narragansett,' qun-
nadqussu, "a tall man." See Gunnunks.
92. GOORGO: neck of land in Islip town, east
of Babylon. It was "formerly called 'Go-or-go
his neck' which has been corrupted to George's
66 Indian Place-Names
Neck and St. George's Neck" (Munsell's Hist.
Suffolk Co., Islip). This is probably an error,
according to the following record, the word being
a corruption of George, viz.: "Richard and
Thomas Willets in 1696 procured a deed for a
tract of land lying to the east of Sequatogue and
called by the English George's Neck " (Thompson's
L. /., vol. i., p. 446.)
93. GOWANUS: creek, bay, and locality in the
City of Brooklyn. It appears very early in the
Dutch records, in 1638: " Thomas Bescher sells
a plantation to Cornelis Lambersen Cool, situate
on Long Island near Gowanus" (Col. Hist. N. Y.,
vol. xiv.). Kieft's Patent 1640 (Red Hook, I2th
ward Brooklyn): "peice of land upon the Long
Island . . . reaching in breadth from the kil
and valley that conies from Gowanes, N. W. by
N." (Col. Hist, of N. Y., vol. xiv.). Variants
are: Kil of Gowanes, 1645 ; Gouwanis, 1652. Stiles's
History of King's County, from other records,
gives Goujanes, Coujanes, Cojanes, and Cujanes
(which bespeak a Spanish derivation). From
the mark of the possessive the land probably takes
its name from the Indian who planted there,
Gauwane's plantation. His name may be trans-
lated "the sleeper," or "he rests." It is cognate
with the Delaware gauwin, "to sleep;" Massachu-
setts, kouweu, "he sleeps," koueuenin, "a sleeper."
See also Algonquian Series, vol. ii., pp. 29-32.
On Long Island 67
94. GUEGUIS: Little Neck in the town of
Babylon. This name appears but once in the
town records, then in a deed from Samuel to
Hannah Titus, dated Aug., 1696: viz.: "which
necke is comonlye called or known by the English
by ye name of ye Litell necke by ye Indians
gueguis" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 194).
95. GUNNUNKS: a swamp in the North Neck,
Montauk. A small tract of land in close proxim-
ity is called Gunnunk's Garden. It lies midway
between Fort Pond and Culloden Point, at the
foot of the range of hills, known as the Rocky
Ridge. I have been informed by Jonathan Gould,
Esq., who lived at the second house for many
years, that the swamp and garden took its name
from an old squaw who made her home there.
Mr. Abraham Schellinger of Amagansett, aged
over 80, says, "that he heard his father speak of
this squaw who was called Luce Gunnunk, and
that she was a very tall woman." It may have
been originally the parallel of the Delaware gun-
aquat, "tall"; Narragansett and Massachusetts,
gunnuqui, or gun'unkq, "tall"; -unk, "a tree"
(Trumbull); gun' unk, "a tall standing tree."
96. GUSCOMQUOROM : neck of land in Babylon
town, now known as the Great East Neck. One
of the five necks of meadow bought in 1657,
68 Indian Place-Names
but not named. In a record of 1669, we find:
"and the other parcell lying on a neck called by
the Indians Guscomquorom and by the English
the East Neck." Indian deed for Santapaug,
1689: ''Southward unto the Indian path nor-
ward as now is, and from the River eastward
that parts guscomquaram from the said Santa-
paug. " Indian deed for the upland, 1698: "all
that tract of upland . . . comonly known by
ye English by ye name of ye East Neck, by ye
Indians Cans Cung Quaram" (H. R., vol. i., pp.
10, 154; vol. ii., pp. 34, 222). Munsell's History
of Suffolk County gives Caus-kum-cru-a-ran. Gus-
comquorom denotes "a crossing-place"; from the
fact that it was crossed by the Indian trail, or
that there was a wading place between that neck
and Santapaug. The word is related to the Mas-
sachusetts (Eliot) qushkodteam, "he went over,"
' ' passed over ' ' ; Delaware, gochgoshgaan, ' ' to cross
(a water)"; Micmac, usogomaase, "to cross a
water"; Chippewa, gashkis, "to pass over some-
thing." We may compare Micmac Assookcum-
kakuuc, "crossing place" (Campbell's Hist. Yar-
mouth Co., N. S., p. 20).
97. HAPAX: creek on Rockaway Neck, Hemp-
stead town. Probably a form corresponding to
Massachusetts dupauk, "flooded or overflowed
land," so-called from the meadows that border
the creek. See Coekwas and Oppeax.
On Long; Island 69
98. HASHAMOMUK: a neck of land west of the
village of Greenport, Southold town. The name
originally belonged to a limited tract of land,
although the early settlers so-called the whole
eastern part of the town as shown by an entry
of 1659, viz.: "It was ordered that Hashamom-
muck Neck from Wm. Solmons and John Con-
kelynnes bounds to the utmost poynt of land agst
Plumb Gutt, " etc. (S. R., vol. i., p. 324). It is
first mentioned in a certificate dated 1645, but not
recorded until 1750, one hundred and five years
afterwards, viz.: "This may serve to certify
that I, William Salmon, have bought of a man-
hansuck Indian named Paukamp ... a parcel
of land comonly called Hashamommock" (S. R.,
vol. ii., p. 276). Variants are Hashamamuck,
1649; Hashamommuck, 1653; Hashamoomuk, 1677;
Hashshamamuk, 1680; Hashamomuk, 1684; Har-
shamomque, 1795; Arshamomaque, 1890. This
name belongs to Trumbull's Class 3, and is an
interesting specimen of that class. Hashamomuk
neck was noted for its running springs of water,
which made the neck very desirable to the early
settlers. Hence the name which is derived from
h'ashim "a spring of water for drinking pur-
poses"; Massachusetts, ashim, "fountain"; -om,
"the verb of motion" ; -muck, "where a thing is. "
Hence H'ashim-om-muck, "where the springs
flow." See Mashomuck.
7O Indian Place-Names
99. HASSOCK: a creek in the meadow near
Rockaway Beach (U. S. Coast Survey Map).
100. HASSOCK: a tract of meadow near East
Rockaway Inlet, called "Great Bear Hassock.'"
101. HASSOCK: another tract in same locality,
called "Black bank Hassock." The word is the
parallel of the Narragansett hassucki, "marsh
land"; Delaware, assisku, "miry or marshy."
102. HASSOCKEY: localities mentioned in the
early records in connection with marshy tracts of
land. First in 1657, Records of Jamaica, "Has-
sokie meadowes" (Col. Hist, of N. Y., vol. xiv.,
p. 55) > again in 1682: "It was voted and agreed
by the major part of the town that the Hassokey
swamp over against Jonathan Rogers, shall be
sold at a vandue by the burning of an inch of
candle" (H. R., vol. i., p. 339). Also Hassokey
103. HAUPPAUGE: a hamlet on the southern
border of Smithtown. The locality was called
in the early records of the town "Wheelers," from
two of the first settlers. Hauppaug road now
forms part of the boundary between this town and
Islip. "In 1735, Hauppauge neck containing 1200
acres, as owned by the Smiths, was only that
On Long Island 71
portion of it which lay in Smithtown. The neck
ran across the town of Islip and was the tract
included in the Gibbs's patent of 1692" (Mun-
sell's Hist. Smithtown, p. 39). The locality is a
swampy section, abounding in springs of running
water which make the head waters of Wingan-
hauppauge brook that flow southward through
the town of Islip, hence the name given to the
hamlet being the same as the brook with the
prefix dropped. The traditional meaning "sweet
water" as given by the various Island historians,
is inadmissible. It is from the word correspond-
ing to the Massachusetts (Eliot) dupaiik, "over-
flowed land;" Micmac (Rand) aoompogwa, "to be
overflowed;" Delaware, chiippegat, " high water. "
The name was also applied by the Indians to
springs that flow out and cover the land, which
fully described the swampy characteristics of
Hauppauge neck. See Wingarihauppauge and Win-
104. HAUQUEBAUG: see Aquebogue.
105. HOCUM: "the neck of land at West Islip,
generally known as Secatogue, is sometimes called
Hocum." (Munsell's Hist. Suffolk Co., Islip.)
"The neck now owned by the Willets family
was called by the Indians Hocum, the name of
Secatogue or Sequatake being nearly coextensive
with the jurisdiction of that tribe" (Thompson's
72 Indian Place-Names
L. /., vol. i., p. 448). The above statement is
not founded on facts, for the neck was no doubt
called Secatogue; on it was located their principal
village at the era of settlement. Consequently,
the term Secatogue could not have designated
their whole territory. Hocum was perhaps a
name of one of the chiefs who resided here, or
it may have been descriptive of some part of the
neck, "hook-shaped," from a word corresponding
to the Narragansett (R. Williams) hoquaun;
Delaware, hoquaan, "a hook"; perhaps related
to Hoaham, Hoham, Hooham (Nelson, Pers.
Names of Inds. of N. J., 1904, p. 20), the name
of several Delaware sachems (A. F. c.).
1 06. HOGGENOCH: a supposed Indian name,
now applied by the owner, C. A. Lamont, Esq.,
to "Little Hog Neck" near Sag Harbor. It is a
corrupted form of Hog Neck, so spelled by mis-
take in the Dongan Patent for Southampton,
Dec. 6, 1686.
107. HOHOSBOCO: creek in the southern part
of Newtown, Queen's Co. An Indian deed,
Oct. 3, 1662, has: "neck of meadow land com-
monly called Plunder's Neck, bounded on the east
by the river Hohosboco" (Riker's Annals of
Newtown, p. 53).
1 08 . HOMES : a hill at ' ' North Sea, ' ' Southamp-
On Long Island 73
ton town. The records show that on "Apr. 28,
1670, Robert Fordham sells a peice of land at
a place called Whomeses" (S. H. R., vol. ii., pp.
3, 26). This tract was located near the place now
known as "Homes 1 Hill." W. S. Pelletreau, Esq.,
informs me that he never was able to find the
origin of the name. I would suggest that it is
from the word corresponding to the Narragansett
homes, "an old man," indicating where at one
time an old Indian lived. This word was also
used by the Nissequoque tribe as proven by a
record of 1663, when Jonas Wood "went to view
foure Necks of meadow and there lived an old
Homes and his sonne, whose name was Wane-
quaheag" (Munsell's Hist. S. C., Smithtown, p. i).
The Sachem Chice (also signifying "an old man")
signed the Southampton Conveyance of 1793
(vol. i., p. 5). This word, according to Trumbull,
characterized old age as entitled to respect, and
without associating the idea of decrepitude, which
belongs to homes.
109. HOOPANINAK: an island at Flatlands,
King's Co. Mentioned in the Indian deed of
May 13, 1664, y i z - : "both of upland and marshes,
anyway belonging thereto, as the Straun Beach or
Beaches, as namely that running out more westerly
with the Island adjoining, and is at the same time
by the ocean sea wholly inclosed, called hoopan-
inak, etc." (Stiles's Hist. King's Co.,] p. 78).
74 Indian Place-Names
The Island, "by the ocean sea wholly inclosed,"
is what is referred to in this deed. The word
kupp-anahan-ak means "the inclosed or shut in
island-place," from hoop corresponding to Dela-
ware kuppdsk; Massachusetts kuppi, "to inclose,"
"to shut in"; manahan-ak, "island place"
(manahan, "island"; -ak, "place").
no. IHPETONGA: a name bestowed upon
Brooklyn Heights in the city of Brooklyn by
Henry R. Schoolcraft, who says "The voca-
bulary of the Mohegans affords, however, a few
other terms, the application of which may well be
assumed from their etymology. The heights of
Brooklyn are graphically described in the term
Ihpetonga; that is, "high sandy banks" (Gowans's
Bibliotheca Americana, vol. i., p. 26). He derives
it probably from the Chippewa ishpakumiga,
"bank of earth," instead of the Mohegan aspetong;
Massachusetts (Eliot), aspohtag, "a height";
the word being paralleled by the Delaware
achwowangeu, "high sandy banks." See Al-
gonqiiian Series, vol. ii., pp. 46-49. See also
in. IRABASH: seeJabash.
112. JABASH: a cove on the east side of Shin-
necock neck half way from the head of the creek
to the point. (Letter from Wm. S. Pelletreau.)
On Long Island 75
Called by one of the Indians residing on the neck,
"Ir abash cove."
113. JAMAICA: village and town in the south-
western part of Queen's Co. "The name by
which the town is designated has been variously
accounted for, but the prevalent opinion is that
there was once a family of Indians who resided
near the bay, south of the Beaver Pond, who were
known as the ' Jameco' Indians" (Thompson's
L. /., vol. ii., p. 96). In the certificate of pur-
chase, dated 1656, we find: "Living at ye new
plantacon neare unto ye bever pond, comonly
called Jemaica" (Thompson's L. /., vol. ii., p. 97).
The early records give the name almost invariably
as " Yemacah. " Variations are Jamaick, 1666;
Jameca, 1678; Jamaicah, 1696; etc. Flint in his
Early Long Island (1896, p. 198) gives a form
Jemaco. The reference to the Beaver Pond gives
considerable insight into the origin of the name
as does also the ancient form of spelling. The
locality was probably so designated on account
of the beavers found living at the pond formed by
the dam, which they had made. The name is
the parallel of the Delaware tamaqua, tamaque;
Abnaki, temd'kSe; Narragansett, tummock; Massa-
chusetts, tummunk, "beaver." Similar sugges-
tions, deriving the word from the Mohegan
antique, "a beaver," appeared in the Brooklyn
Standard Union Newspaper, for March 19, 1882.
76 Indian Place-Names
114. KAHAIJONGH: a brook in Islip at Bay
Shore. "About half mile west of Orawac brook,
another stream runs down rejoicing under the two
names of Kahaijongh and Awixa" (Bayles's
Sketches of Suffolk Co.). This is another form
of Cagoqunk or Cachinncak. See Cachinncak and
115. KANTUCK: a locality in the town of
Oyster Bay, Queen's Co. It is a wild, hilly, and
swampy combination at the head of a large body
of salt meadow. The brook Checkachagin or
Choggin flows through the locality. (Informa-
tion by Geo. W. Cocks, Esq.)
1 1 6. KANUNGUM: a pond at the extreme
northwestern bounds of Southampton town. The
pond being a widening of the Peconic River at
Calverton, Riverhead town. It is mentioned
once only in the book of proprietors' records,
Southampton town, as "Kanungum pond" (Let-
ter from Wm. S. Pelletreau). Varied as Conun-
gum and Conungam. Prime's Hist, of L. I.
gives the bounds of Southampton, as follows:
"To the head of Peconic Bay thence west to
Kanungum Pond, through which the Peconic
River passes. From this point the western
bounds is a straight line south about 10 to Sea-
tuck creek." The name denotes "a boundary,"
from a word corresponding to the Massachusetts
On. Long Island 77
(Eliot) kuhguttum, "determined," "fixed"; kuh-
kuhguttum, "bounds"; kuhhunhunkanash, "the
bounds." The same name appears in Massa-
chusetts attached to a pond called Chaubunagon-
gum, which gave the name to an Indian village in
close proximity called Chaubunakongkomuk, "the
boundary inclosed place," "boundary village."
117. KASKUTENSUKEN : see Castateum.
1 1 8. KATAWAMAKE : Katawamac: Crab Mead-
ow, Huntington town. "In December 1685, Gov.
Dongan made a grant to Judge John Palmer
and John Roy see of New York, all the lands be-
tween Cow Harbor [Northport] and Fresh Pond,
bounded south by the road to Smithtown and
called Crab Meadow, or by the Indians 'Kata-
wamac' (Hon. Chas. R. Street; Munsell's
Hist.S.C.). On April 21, 1702, "Isaac De Riemer
and others petition for a tract of unpatented land
to the eastward of Huntington, and to the west-
ward of Nessequack, commonly called by the In-
dians Katawamake, and in English Crab Meadow"
(Land Papers, vol. iii., p. 61, Office Secretary
of State). See Arhakaamunk.
119. KEEMISCOMOCK: "A little brook which
divides the shores of Saghtekoos, or Apple tree
neck, was called by the Indians Keemiscomock, or
78 Indian Place-Names
Weepoose" (Bayles's Sketches of Suffolk Co., p.
210). No earlier authority than the above has
been found, and Mr. Bayles was unable to recall
where he obtained it. The name denotes "a
secret enclosed place," "a place of refuge." The
components of the word are keemis, corresponding
to Massachusetts kemeu, "it is secret"; kimi (Del-
aware), "secret"; kimSi (Abnaki) "en cachette";
and -comock = komuk, "enclosed place, " the second
1 20. KESKAECHQUEREM : a village of the
Canarsie Indians, near Flatlands, King's County.
In 1638, "Kakapoteyno, Menqueruan, and Su-
wiran, chiefs of Keskaechquerem transferred to the
Noble Lords, Directors of the West India Co.
a peice of land lying on Long Island, etc." Also
mentioned in 1642 in a "Lease for a plantation
situate on the Flatland near Keskaechqueren"
(Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., pp. 14, 36). This
name is probably related to the Narragansett (R.
Williams's Key, chap, xxviii) : " Keesaqunnamun, a
kind of solemne, publicke meeting wherein they
lie under the trees, in a kinde of Religious observa-
tion and have a mixture of Religion and sports."
See Algonguian Series, vol. ii., p. 33.
121. KESTATEUW: see Castateum.
122. KETANOMOCKE: Indian village at Hunt-
ington, L. I. A deed from Wm. Jones to Robert
On Long Island 79
Seely, Dec. 22, 1662, says : " Theophilus Eaton, Esq.,
late Governor of New Haven Colony, deceased, unto
whom the lands mentioned were given or granted
by Rusurocon Sagamor of Cutunomack in the pre-
sence of sundry Indians have, etc." (H. R.,
vol. i., p. 43). A certificate dated Aug. 17, 1663,
states that a deed of Eaton's Neck was given to
Theophilus Eaton in 1646, viz.: "we . . . testifie
that Resorokon Sagamore of Ketanomocke of
Long Island now called by the English Hunting-
ton, Did give and grant to Theophilus Eaton,
Esq. and Governor of New Haven, etc." (H. R.,
vol., i., p. 49). Also occurs as Ketewomoke.
This was probably one of the palisadoed villages
of the tribe and where the Sachem Resorokon's
big house or wigwam was located at that period
(1646), but not the place from which the tribal
name of Matinnicock was derived. Resorokon, or
Raseokan in other deeds, is called the Sagamore
of Matinnicoke. Sec'y Van Tienhoven of New
Netherlands, 1650, wrote of what is probably the
village: "the smallest stream runs up in front
of the Indian village, called Martinne houck,
where they have their plantations. This tribe
is not strong and consists of about 30 families.
There were formerly in and about this bay, great
numbers of Indian Plantations, which now lie
waste and vacant" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. i., p.
366). This name must be assigned to Trumbull's
Class 3, i.e., "those formed from verbs, denoting
8o Indian Place-Names
a place where the action of the verb is performed. "
The first part ketan (Narragansett kitthan)
signifies "the sea"; -om is the verb of motion in
its simple form;-mMck having the termination
of the third person singular of the conditional
present passive, "where or when a thing is."
Hence we have Ketan-om-muck, "where the sea
flows," "the shore," or "beach." Ruttenber
confuses this name with that of Crab Meadow.
123. KETCHAPONACK : a neck of land in the
western part of Southampton town on Quantuck
Creek, West Hampton Post Office. It is first
found recorded in 1663, viz.: "Whereas Capt.
Scott and ye town committee agreed for Quaquan-
antuck without specifying in the agreement or
Indenture that he reserved 5 acres of salt marsh in
Ketcheponack neck," etc. (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 38).
Variations are Catchponack, 1681; Catchaponack
1683; Ketchaponack, 1732; Ketchabonack, 1738;
Ketchabonnack, 1782; Dr. J. H. Trumbull, by
mistake, locates the neck on Shinnecock Bay,
viz.: " Ketchaponock, Catchebonnuc, a neck on
Shinnecock Bay, Southampton, was a 'place of
the largest roots ' (kehche- pen-auk] , i. e. , the largest
species of esculent roots found in that neighbor-
hood. In some parts of the country the name
would indicate the yellow water lily (Nuphar
advena), Josselyn's 'water lily with yellow flowers;
On Long Island 81
the Indians eat the roots, which are long in
boiling. They taste like the liver of a sheep'
(N. E. Rarities, p. 44). The Long Island kehche-
pen may have been the Arrowhead (Sagittaria),
the katness of the Delaware Indians, the root of
which is sometimes 'as big as a man's fist.' It
was eaten either boiled or roasted; its name was
transferred by the Indians to the turnip, intro-
duced by Europeans" (Mag. Amer. Hist., vol. i.,
pp. 386-7). W. S. Pelletreau, Esq. (Ind. Geog.
Names in Suffolk Co., 1883) translates it as "land
where the great ground-nuts grow." John Smith
in his Generall Historic of Virginia ( 1624,
Book I, p. 17) says: "ground-nuts as big as
egges, as good as potatoes, and 40 on a string,
not two inches under ground, were found on the
Elizabeth Islands off the Coast of New England,
during Capt. Gosnell's voyage, 1602." See Aca-
bonack, Sagaponack, and Seponack.
124. KETUMPSCUT: "President Stiles, on the
authority of Adam Babcock, Esq. in 1671, gives
this as the Indian name of the west end of Fisher's
Island ; but it belonged originally at the east end
(modern Catumb reef) and means 'at the great
rock;' keht-ompsk-ut" (Trumbull's Indian Names
in Conn.). See Catumb.
125. KILLIS: a pond at Bridgehampton, South-
ampton town. According to Prime's History
82 Indian Place-Names
of Long Island, this name is derived from an
Indian who formerly lived near the pond. An-
other tradition is that it is the name of an Indian
who was drowned in its waters. Killis still sur-
vives among the Shinnecocks as a family name,
but Wm. S. Pelletreau, Esq., informed the w r riter
that this was a corruption of "Achilles." On
searching the old records, Prime's statement is
found to be in error and that the name was
originally derived from "John Kelly," or "Kel-
lie," who was allotted land in this neighborhood;
the early form being "Kellie's Pond."
126. KIOSHK: Ellis' Island, New York Harbor,
means "Gull Island." The name was taken from
the Chippewa and bestowed upon the Island by
Henry R. Schoolcraft in 1845 (Gowans's Biblio-
theca Americana). In Chippewa, "gull" is
gaiashk or kaiashk, corresponding to Cree, kiydsk.
127. KISCASUTTA: "a point of trees" on the
great plain, N. E. of Hempstead. Mentioned in
a land grant to Robert Williams, 1666 (Town
patents, vol. i., pp. 69, 70, Office of Sec'y of
State, Albany, N. Y.). This point of trees is
frequently referred to in many of the ancient
documents relating to the boundaries between
the towns of Hempstead and Oyster Bay. First
in the confirmation of the sale of Hempstead by
the Indians, May II, 1658, viz.: "Pointe of Trees
On Long Island 83
adjoining to the land of Robert Williams where
we left marked trees" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol.
xiv., p. 416). In testimony before the Governor
in relation to land claimed by Tackapousha, the
Massapeage Sachem, June 22, 1677, Mr. Gilder-
sleeve, aged about 76, testifies: "And the East
line at a Pointe of trees that parts Robert Williams
and us where the Indians marked some trees and
from ye marked trees northward" (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 729). Kiscasutta is the Long
Island equivalent of the Delaware (Zeisberger)
inshasu, "to mark"; giskhasu, "to chop"; -ittuck
"trees"; thus "marked trees," "trees chopped"
or "blazed" for a boundary mark, as referred to
in the above testimony of Mr. Gildersleeve. See
Cantiaque and Cantasquntah.
128. KISSENA: a pond at Flushing, Queen's
Co. This is not a Long Island name, but a later-
naming of a pretty sheet of water from the
Chippewa (Baraga) kissina, "it is cold."
129. KITCHAMINCHOK, Ketchininchoge: now
called Moriches Island, on the north shore of the
Great South Bay, at East Moriches. It is sepa-
rated from the mainland by a very narrow strait,
and contains about 50 acres of land and meadow
with a small pond. On July 28, 1659, Wiandance,
Sachem of Pawmanack, sold to Lyon Gardiner
"all the bodys and bones of all the whales that
84 Indian Place-Names
shall come upon the land, or come ashore, from
the place called Kitchaminf choke, unto the place
called Enoughquamuck, only the fins and tayles,
of all we reserve for ourselves and Indians with
the consent of Wannuggeashcum [Winecroscum]
and Tawbaughauz [Tobacus] Sachems of the places
aforesaid" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 34). Examination
of the original word shows that the (f) is intrusive,
and an error of the printer. It is also mentioned
in the will of Col. Matthew Howell (Oct. 13, 1704)
who leaves "son Israel y$ of y 2 of an Island
called Ketchininchoge" (Pelletreau's Abstracts of
Wills, Sea-Side Times, Southampton, Sept. 27,
1888). This name is a simple boundary designa-
tion, no doubt bestowed at the time the grant
was given. The first component, kitcha (ketchi,
cochi, chike] connotes "a going on from a begin-
ning"; cognate with Massachusetts kutche, "it
begins"; Narragansett kitche, it "begins," etc.
The other component -minchok, -menchoake is
the Montauk munchoage, "an island." Hence the
name Kitche-minchoake, "the beginning island,"
which is a good etymology. See Cochiminchoake.
130. KONKHUNGANIK : the name of the south-
ern part of Fort Pond, Montauk, Easthampton
town, generally applied by historians to the whole
part. First noted in the Indian deed of 1661,
viz.: "All the peice or neck of land belonging to
Montauk land westward to a fresh pond in a
On Long' Island 85
beach, the name of the pond being Quanuntowunk
on the north and Konkhunganik on the south,"
(Hedges's Address, 1849). It appears also as
Konhhonganik (Ranger's Deeds, 1850). Other
variations are Kongonock, Konkhonganik (original
deed in possession of the Bensons), Konhhon-
ganik, Konk-hong-anok, Konhunganock, being er-
roneous multiplications from the original record.
This pond was the eastern limit of the grant, and
the exact line was defined by a fence, which the
Indians by the terms of the deed were obliged
"to secure on ye southside of ye aforesaid pond,
from all Cattle, During the time their corn is upon
the ground." A fence still stands, as it has done
for the past two hundred years, on the same line.
The name Konkhunganik signifies "at the bound-
ary," or " to the line, " the parallel of the following
Algonkian terms, Massachusetts, kuhkuheganit, "to
the line" (Eliot: Isaiah, xxviii., 17); kukhun-
hunkganish, "the bounds" (Acts xvii., 26) ; kuhkoh-
hamoonk, "by line" (Psalms Ixxviii., 55) ; Delaware
(Zeisberger) kikhican, "boundary"; Chippewa
(Baraga) kikaigan, "mark to guide travellers."
See Kanungum and Ronkonkoma.
131. LIGONEE: a swamp and brook at Sag
Harbor. The brook, flowing from Long Pond
into the cove at the "North side," is the south-
western boundary of the corporate limits of the
village and has been a famous place for alewife
86 Indian Place-Names
fishing for many years. The brook is not natural
but dug by the fisherman. I find it on record in
1726, viz.: "Laying out of Highway from Sage
to ye harbor and so runs in that road near ye east
end of ye Long pond and to run northward to ye
slade that conies up from ye head of Liganee
swamp" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 192). Variations
are Leganee 1733; Litganee, 1849. This name is
not Indian, as has been supposed, but English
folk-lore, from a man who sank in the swamp
"Leg an' knee." There are many names here-
abouts of similar origin, like "Soak hides,"
132. LUSAM: "Jericho (Oyster Bay), the In-
dian name of which is Lusam, is a pleasant village
near the centre of the town, upon the Jericho
turnpike road, 27 miles from the city of New
York" (Thompson's L. I., vol. i., p. 504). In
1682, the Indians sell to John Townsend: "50
acres on east side of cartway from Muskceta Cove
to ye farme called Lusam or Robert Williams plan-
tation." In 1689, is mentioned "Sarah Williams,
widow of Robert Williams of Jericho alias Lusam. "
Thompson probably derives his authority from
these records. The name is probably not Indian,
but a contraction from the name of a village in
England called Lewisham, now a part of London.
133. MACUTTERIS: a locality at Flatlands,
On Long Island 87
King's Co. Mentioned in the Indian deed of
May 13, 1664, viz.: "both of upland and marshes,
anyway belonging thereto, as the Straun Beach
or Beaches, as namely that running out more
westerly, with the Island adjoining and is at the
same time by the ocean sea wholly inclosed,
called hoopaninak and shanscomacocke and macut-
teris, etc." (Stiles's Hist. King's Co., p. 78). This
word is probably related to the Narragansett
moskituash, "a meadow," and the name refers
to the marshes sold in the above deed.
134. MADNANS, Madnank: Great Neck, North
Hempstead, Queen's Co. Thompson says: "The
name of Great Neck was Madnank called by the
early settlers Madnans" (Proceedings, N. Y.
Hist. Soc., 1845). The early forms Madnans
or Mad-Nans in 1672 (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv.,
p. 667) suggest that the name is not of Indian
origin, but may have been so-called from some
crazy squaw or white woman. Again, Madnank
may be abbreviated from a longer name, for it
seems to contain the inseparable generic adene,
"hill," and auke, "land," or "place," signifying
therefore some kind of a "hilly place."
135. MAHCHONGITCHUGE : a swamp in the
North Neck, Montauk. This name is found
recorded in the Indian deed of 1670, for the land
between the ponds as follows: "from thence to
88 Indian Place-Names
the swamp where the hay stacks stood called
Mahchongitchuge, and so through the swamp to
the great pond" (Hedges's Address, 1849). It
appears also as Mahchongitchigo (Ranger's Deeds,
1 850) . This name is susceptible of two definitions,
if we apply the Algonkian mode of compounding
names: Mahchong machaug (Narragansett, R.
Williams), "a swamp;" -itchug, either Massa-
chusetts muskechoge, "a place of rushes," or
chip-pitchoge, "a place of separation," "a turn-
ing place," from the fact of its being a bound-
mark. The last may be nearer correct and denote
"the swamp place of separation."
136. MAKEOPACA: a locality at Gravesend,
King's Co. Mentioned in the Indian deed of
July 20, 1684: "For a certain parcel of land
commonly called by the Indians Makeopaca,
beginning at the most eastward end of the beach
called by the Indians Moeung, bounded on the
westmost side by the land heretofore purchased
from Chippahig, and on the eastward side by a
creek commonly called the Strome Kill, and soe
along from the head of said creek, through the
middle of the meadow and valley till they come
to a white-oak tree standing by the Flatland
wagon path and soe running to another white-oak
tree standing by Utrecht wagon path, and soe
on a direct line to the Flatbush fence, and upon
the west side bounded by the field of Utrecht"
On Lon Island 89
(Stiles's Hist. King's Co., p. 162). This was a
large tract of land, probably cleared for cultiva-
tion by the whites before its purchase or else clear
naturally. The name denotes "a great clearing"
or ' ' openfield.' ' The components corresponding to
Delaware mecha; Massachusetts, masha, "great";
paca = pauqu-auke, ' ' open land. ' ' Trumbull shows
this Algonkian name curiously disguised in
Tippecanoe (Kentucky and Indiana) which is a
corrupted abbreviation of Kehti-paquonunk, "at
the great clearing," the site of an Indian town
on the Wabash River. Filson (Hist, of Kentucky)
wrote it: Kathtippacanunck. J. P. Dunn, how-
ever (Handb. of Amer. Inds. N. of Mex., vol. i.,
I 97 P- 759)' thinks that Tippecanoe is forKitdp-
wdnunk, "buffalo-fish place," the river at that
place being named by the Miami Indians from
kitdpkwan, "buffalo-fish" (A. F. c.).
137. MAMANOCK: a neck of land at East
Moriches, Brookhaven town. On Sept. 25, 1693,
Aug. Graham surveyed for Doctor Henry Taylor
and another "two necks of land called by ye name
of Marigies and Mamanock." A deed of 1691
mentions Meritces and Mamanok Necks lying
together (Thompson's L. I., vol. i., p. 417).
Other variations are Maritches and Mamannuck,
1697. The first component of this name, maman,
signifies "to join, " "to unite, " as in the Chippewa
mamawissin, "it joins together"; the other com-
QO Indian Place-Names
ponent is the locative -ock or -auke. The name,
therefore, signifies "land united or joined (to
some other tract)," as in the above, it was "land
joined to Meritces Neck." See Moriches.
138. MANANTIC: a neck and creek in the west-
ern part of Shelter Island. The name is tradi-
tional, found only on the maps of the Island and in
local parlance. It is pronounced Me'nan'tic by
the Shelter Island people. This is not the parallel
of Delaware menantic, "a spruce or cedar swamp"
(as some might suppose), but describes the creek,
which has a small island at its outlet; viz. : Manan,
1 ' an island ' ' ; -tic = -tuck, ' l a tidal stream. ' ' Hence
"an island creek" is the meaning of Manantic.
139. MANCHONACK: Gardiner's Island, East
Hampton town. The island is so named in the
Indian deed to Lyon Gardiner, May 3, 1639, as
follows: "knowe all men by these presents, that
we Yovawan Sachem of Pommanocc and Aswaw
Sachem his wife for ten coats of trading cloath
to us before the making hereof payed and delivered
by Lion Gardiner commander of the forte called
Saybrook fort als Pashpeshauks at the mouth of the
River of Kennecticut doe hereby for us and our
heirs and successors grant, bargaine and sell unto
the said Lion Gardiner all that our Island called
Manchonat" (Lechford's Note Book, Arch&o-
logia Americana, vol. vii., pp. 207, 208). Variants
On Long Island 91
are Manchonacke, 1639; Monchoneck, 1655; Man-
chonacke, 1659; Monchongamuc, 1840. On Gar-
diner's Island is preserved an old memorandum
book, containing the vocabulary of the Montauks
given to Lyon Gardiner, the 7th Proprietor,
March 25, 1798, by George Pharaoh, then aged 66,
and the chief of this tribe. In this short list of
words is Mashongonoc (Gardiner's Island), "a
place where a vast number of people had died of
a distemper." Gardiner wrote on another page,
Oct. 1802: "The Isle of Wight or Gardiner's
Island in Indian is pronounced Mashong-o-noc
and spelled in old writings Manchannock man
signifies Island and the remainder signifies a
place where many people had died. The Indians
on Montauk have a tradition that a little before
the English came a distemper had carried off
nearly all the Indians, they say it was not the
small-pox, perhaps yellow fever." This meaning
is probably the correct one. The name is derived
from the same radical as Narragansett man-
chanhom, "the dead man"; literally, "he has
gone;" Massachusetts, moncheog (Eliot), "we
departed"; monchu (Eliot), "go ye"; monche-
Omwog (Eliot), "they have gone." This makes
Mancheog-0-auke "land of the departed."
140. MANETUCK: a neck of land in Islip town,
west of Bay Shore. On "Sept. I, 1701, the
Indians sell to Thomas Willets two necks of land
92 Indian Place-Names
called Manetuc and Watchogue, bounded west by
the river called Compawams, east by the river
Watchogue, south by the salt bay, and to extend
northward, keeping the full breadth of said necks,
as far as the north side of the pines" (Thomp-
son's L. /., vol. i., p. 447); also a deed of March
2, 1705, by the Van Cortlandts to John Mowbray,
"bounded east by neck called Marihtak. " Varia-
tions are Manetuc, Mantash, Manshtak, Marihtak,
Manetuck, etc. I, at one time, considered this a form
of Manatuck, a name given to hills throughout
New England, and denoting "a place of observa-
tion," "a look out" (Trumbull). This meaning
would not apply to this neck of land, as far as its
hilly qualities are concerned. I now regard it as
corresponding to Delaware menantak, "a pine
swamp"; Zeisberger gives menantac, "a spruce,
pine or cedar swamp." This fully describes the
neck and this etymology seems to be confirmed
by the mention of "pines" in the earliest deed.
141. MANHANSACK - AHAQUATUWAMOCK : the
full Indian appellation of Shelter Island. The
earliest record we have been able to find is dated
March 23, 1652, viz.: "We whose names are here
underneath subscribed doe -hereby testify and
declare that Yokee formerly Sachem of Man-
hansick ahaquatuwamock now called Shelter Island
did on the three and twentieth of March 1652, give
full Possession unto Capt. Nathaniel Silvester
On Long Island 93
and Ensigne John Booth of the aforesaid Island
of Ahaquatuwamock with all that belonged to the
same" (S. R., vol. i., p. 158). Again in 1656:
"all that their Islands of Ahaquatuwamuck other-
wise called Menhansack" (E. H. R., vol. i., p.
97) ; Menhansack-ahaquashu-wornock (Thompson's
L. I.) ; Man-han-sac-kah-aquash-fj-om-uk (Hors-
ford), ''Island at the river mouth and sheltered
much stockade place." Traditionally, "an island
sheltered by islands," is an offhand translation
and nearer right than Horsford's labored meaning.
The name is made up as follows: Menhansack or
menhansett, "the island neighborhood; "ahaquatu,
"sheltered" or "covered," cognate with Dela-
ware ehachquihasu, "clad," "covered"; Massa-
chusetts, onkiowohquassv (Eliot), "a shelter";
Micmac, apkoouase, "to take shelter." The
terminal affix -amuck, "a fishing place," occurs
more often than -omuk, "a place limited." I
therefore make the name Manhan-es-et-ahaquas-
s-amuck, "the island neighborhood much shel-
tered their fishing place. " See Algonquian Series,
vol. vii., pp. 25-30, for a discussion of this word.
See also Manhansett.
142. MANHANSETT: name by which Shelter
Island is generally known. An entry dated May
8, 1656, says: "And whereas the said James
ff arrest by deed under hand and seale bearing date
the eighteenth of May one Thousand six hundred
94 Indian Place-Names
ffortie and one . . . conveyed unto Stephen
Goodyear of New Haven, Merchant his heirs and
assigns forever the aforesaid Island of Menhan-
sack" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 96). Variants are
Munhansett, 1648; Manhansett, 1657; Manhan-
sack, 1665. The name has been interpreted by
Prof. E. W. Horsford as "island at the river
mouth." The early form shows this to be an
error, for the reason that the affix is not -sec or
-suck, but is the diminutive -es-et, "at," "about,"
etc. That of 1652, Manhansick is evidently an
error of spelling, for Amagansett occurs with the
same. Besides Shelter Island is not by any
possibility "land at a river mouth," but "island
land, or neighborhood" describes it perfectly.
See the previous name. See Manhansack-Aha-
quatuwamock and Manhasset.
143. MANHANSUCK : a brook in Southold town,
now called Pipe's Neck Creek. It flows into the
harbor just west of Greenport and has a small
island of woods at its mouth. It is mentioned
in Farrett's deed to Richard Jackson, Aug. 15,
1640, as follows: "ffifty acres of meadow and
upland lying and being uppon the north of the
River called Manhansuck in Long Island, to the
eastward of the place commonly called the ffive
wigwams" (S. R., vol. i., p. 112). As copied from
the original record, the name is Manhansuck.
The late J. Wickham Case says, "The place
On Long Island 95
called the 'Five Wigwams' has lost all marks
of identification. It may have been upon Pipe's
Neck, but I am inclined to think it was upon the
small island of woods, belonging now to the estate
of Jeremiah Moore, deed., at the mouth of Pipe's
Neck Creek" (S. R., vol. i., p. 113, Note). The
wigwams ould not have been located on the
island, for it was the small island that gave the
name to the creek, viz.: Manhan-suck, "an island
brook," or "island at the outlet," from manhan
"island";, -suck, "brook," "outlet." I think the
five wigwams were on Hashamomuk Neck. See
144. MANHASSET: a name now given to a
village, and to the neck of land formerly called
Cow Neck, Oyster Bay, Queen's Co. "Cow
Neck, celebrated for its fine pasture lands, has
become by some strange metamorphosis Man-
hasset, the name of an Indian tribe once inhabit-
ing Shelter Island" (Thompson's L. /., vol. ii.,
p. 302). Prime derives the name from the same
source. See Manhansett.
145. MANHATTAN: an Island and Borough of
that great civic consolidation, New York City.
The earliest appearance of the name is on a map
discovered in the general archives of Simancas,
Spain, made in 1607 (Brown's Genesis of the U. S.,
p. 456), where it is given as Manahatin, which I
96 Indian Place-Names
regard as a very pure form. The "Carte Figura-
tive" of 1616 has it Manhattes, and so in 1626,
when purchased from the Indians. The other
variations are: Manahatas, 1630; Munatthans,
1631; Manhattos, 1632; Manhutton, 1633; Man-
hattans, 1637, e tc. Heckewelder wrote: "It is
added in return for their civilities the natives
were made to taste intoxicating drinks, and that
in order to commemorate the event they called
the Island thereafter Mannahattanink, 'the place
of drunkenness of madness from drinking.' :
Schoolcraft, however, in a report on aboriginal
names (Trans., N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1844) asserts
this to be "sheer inference, unsupported by
philology," and gives as the correct name of the
Island, Monahtanuk, descriptive of the whirlpool
at Hellgate. Thus do two noted linguists dis-
agree, when in fact both are wrong. Benson,
in his memorial (read before the N. Y. Hist. Soc.
in 1816) gives the meaning as being the "town on
the Island," and quotes extracts to prove it, viz.:
"town of Manhattan,'" "townsmen of the Manhat-
toes," etc. The true etymology is indicated by
the early form from Spanish sources, viz. : Mana-
hatin, from manah "an island," -atin, "a hill,"
"the hill island." Other etymologies have been
suggested, none of which are acceptable. For a
full study of this name, see Algonguian Series,
vol. i. See also Brooklyn Eagle Almanac, 1897,
On Long Island 97
146. MANISSES: Block Island, Long Island
Sound. In Lyon Gardiner's Relation of the
Pequot War, Miantemonie, the Narragansett
Sachem, is reported to have said to the Mon-
tauks: "I am come to you privately first, be-
cause you can persuade the Indians and Sachem
to what you will, and I will send over fifty In-
dians to Manisses and thirty to you from thence,
and take an hundred of the Shinnecock Indians
with an hundred of your own here, and when you
see the three fires that will be made forty days
hence, in a clear night, then do as we, and the
next day fall on and kill men, women, and children,
but no cows, for they will serve to eat till our deer
be increased again." The Indians of Manisses
were frequent visitors to the Montauks. This
was made a point of in Ayres's Legends of
"But yester-e'en, the sun went down
Upon Manisses' walls of stone,
Where I with three brave followers came
To watch the evening's dying flame."
Parsons's Indian Names of Places in Rhode Island
(1861) gives the name as " Monasses, Island of
the little god," but the signification given by
Trumbull is no doubt the true one, viz. : Manisses,
"little island" from the diminutive munnoh-es.
98 Indian Place-Names
147. MANITTUWOND: Plum Island, Southold
town. Roger Williams, in 1637, writes to Gov-
ernor Vane: "ThePequts are scarce of provision,
& therefore (as usually so now especially) they
are in some numbers come down to the seaside
(& 2 Islands by name Munnawtawkit & Manit-
tuwond especially) to take sturgeon & other fish,
as all so to make new fields of corne, in case the
English should destroy their fields at home"
(Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., vol. vi., 4th series, pp.
189-190). Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, in his
Indian Names in Connecticut, offers no inter-
pretation of this name. I would suggest that
it is derived from what they did there, viz. :
"to make new fields of corne." The same root
is found in the Narragansett aukeeteaumen and
quttdunemun, "to plant corn." Manittuwond
signifies, therefore, "an island to which they
went to plant corn." Compare the Delaware,
minihaking, "corn land"; Chippewa, manddmini-
kitigan, "Indian corn field"; Massachusetts
eachi-min-ineatu-konash, "corn fields" (St. Luke
vi, i). See Munnawtawkit.
148. MANNAHANNING: Coney Island, King's
Co. In the Indian release of May 7, 1654:
"the said Guttaquoh, acknowledges to have sould
all his right and clayme to said land called Nar-
riock (the Island) and Mannahaning (the neck) ' '
(Thompson's L. I., vol. ii., p. 175). The above in
On Long Island 99
parentheses is probably an error of Mr. Thomp-
son's. They should be reversed. Narriock, "a.
point of land, " applies to the neck; Mannahaning,
"land on the island," or "island land," to the
island only. See Minnahanonck.
149. MANNATTO: a high hill and hamlet,
Oyster Bay, Queen's Co. We find it first on re-
cord in the Indian deed of Aug. 18, 1695, f r the
tract known as the Bethpage purchase, viz.:
"att a dirty hole upon ye Brushy plaines, near
Mannatto Hill, from thence up a hollow on ye
south side of Mannatto Hill," etc. (Thompson's
L. /., vol. i., p. 507). Furman gives it as Manet
or Manetta Hill, and says: "It is Manitou Hill
or 'hill of the great spirit.' ' He gives a tradi-
tional story to account for the origin of the name
(Antiquities of L. /.). This is probably as true
as most of the traditional signification given to
many of the Long Island Indian names, being
founded on fancy without a grain of fact. The
name signifies "a hill surpassing others in the
same vicinity," being derived from mon, "sur-
passing," and attin, "a hill," hence "the sur-
passing or wonderful hill." Mount Monadnock
in New Hampshire gets its name from Mon-
adn-ock, ("land or country of the surpassing
mountain"; mon, "surpassing"; adn, "hill or
mountain"; ock, auke, "land or country"), being
thus a parallel to Mannatto. See the discussion of
loo Indian Place-Names
Monadnock in the Journal of American Folk-
Lore, vol. xvii., 1904, pp. 172-174.
150. MANOWTASSQUOT : a creek on the bound-
ary between the towns of Islip and Brookhaven.
It has been designated by all the Long Island
historians as the Indian name of Blue Point, but
it belonged originally to the creek or river west
of the point, as proven by the following extract
from the Fletcher Patent for Islip, 1697 : " Bounded
easterly by a brook or river to the westward of a
point called the Blew Point, known by the Indian
name of Manowtassquot, easterly to the mouth
of the Manowtassquot aforesaid" (Thompson's
L. /., vol. i., p. 443). Walter L. Suydam, Esq.,
perpetuates the name as " Manowtasquott, " for
country-seat at Blue Point. The name denotes
"a locality where the Indians gathered flags or
rushes for baskets and mats." The components
of the word are manowt = Massachusetts, manatt,
pi., mant($ash (Eliot), "baskets"; Narragansett,
munnote, pi. munnotash, "baskets " ; assqu Massa-
chusetts, misashquok (Eliot), "bulrushes"; auke,
"land"; -ut, "at"; mana)t-ashqu-auk-ut, thus
signifies "at the basket-rush place." Wood
informs us: "In summer they gather flaggs of
which they make Matts for houfes and Hemp and
Rufhes, with dying ftuff of which they make
curious baskets with intermixed colours and pro-
tractures of antique imagerie; thefe baskets be of
On Long Island 101
all fizes from a quart to a quarter in which they
carry their luggage " (N. E. Prospect, p. 2, 108).
151. MANTASH, Manshtak. See Manetuck.
152. MANTOOBAUGS: a parcel of land on
Hashamomuk neck, Southold town. It is men-
tioned in the Indian deed of 1660, that divers
years since (in 1645) "they, the said Indians
reserving out of the said neck two swamps . . .
and a parcel of land thereunto adjoining called
Mantoobaugs" (S. R., vol. i., p. 207). From the
above and the mark of the English possessive
it is evident that the reasons for reserving the
tract were because it happened to be the Indian
Mantoobaugs plantation or corn fields, and where
one of the five wigwams were located in 1640.
153. MANUNKQUIAUG : a locality in the North
Neck, Montauk, East Hampton town. Found
on record as one of the boundaries in the Montauk
Indian deed of 1670, viz.: "then straight from
the hay stacks to the great pond, so along by the
said pond to a place called Manunkquiaug on
farthest side the reeds, growing on the end of the
great pond eastward (Hedges's Address, 1849).
The name appears also as Manunkquinaug (Ran-
ger's Deeds, 1850); Manunkquiag (De Kay, 1851).
Ranger's Deeds has "woods" in place of "reeds"
IO2 Indian Place-Names
as in the above. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac
for 1888 and 1889, I gave the meaning as -'Men-
haden country," or "fertilizer land," supposing
it to be the same as Manunkatuck, Guilford,
Conn., of which Mr. Trumbull says: "Probably
' menhaden country ' from munonqutteau (mun-
nohquohteau, Eliot), ' that which fertilizes or
manures land ' whence comes Narragansett mun-
nawhatteatig (R. Williams), the Indian name of
white-fish or bony-fish, 'fertilizers,' now corrupted
to menhaden." Further study satisfies me that
this cannot be the derivation of the name, the
locality on the southern shore of Great Pond-
on what is now called Ditch Plain, being more or
less marshy, with flags and reeds, would not be a
place where these fish could have been taken. I
am satisfied that it is a form corresponding to the
Narragansett anuckquaque, "as far as," "the
extreme limit of," "the ending of either land or
water"; Chippewa (Baraga) enigokwa, "as wide
as," enigokwadessing, "as it is wide." Here we
find the name as the extreme eastern limit of the
above tract of land, M'anunkqua-auke, "as far
as the land goes," "end of the land," etc. See
154. MARECHKAWICK, Marychkenwikingh: an
Indian village on the site of the Borough of
Brooklyn. In the Indian deed of July 16, 1637,
for two islands in the Hellegat, is stated:
On Long Island 103
"Personally appeared before us Seyseys and Num-
ers both chiefs of the Marychkenwikingh . . .
with consent of the community there." Again:
"a peice of land on Long Island near Merch-
kawikingh" (Kieft's Patent, 1640). Other vari-
ants are : Merechkawick, 1643 ; Marechkawick, 1643 ;
"a peice of land at Merechkawick on the Kill
of Gouwanes," 1643; Reckkenweck, 1643; Reck-
kenwick, 1647 (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., pp. 5
et seq.). This name has seen various translations,
none of which need any extended notice at this
time. The adjectival merechka is the equivalent
of the Delaware (Zeisberger) menachkha; Massa-
chusetts, menehket, "fortified," "fenced," "pali-
sadoed "; primarily "to make strong with trees."
The substantival wik (Delaware, wik; Massa-
chusetts, wek or week, "house," "home"; and
from it comes wigwam] is the conditional third
person singular, of the verb "when (or where)
he is at home," wiiich, with the locative suffix
makes the Delaware wikink, Massachusetts
weekit, "at or in his house." This gives us in the
Delaware, to which dialect this name is closely
allied, Menachkha-wik-ink, "at his fortified or
palisadoed house." This refers, no doubt, to
its being the residence of the Sachems. See
Algonquian Series, vol. ii., pp. 15-21.
155. MAROSSEPINCK : Indian village in South
Oyster Bay. This is the Dutch notation for
IO4 Indian Place-Names
Massapeague. The Indian deed of Jan. 15, 1639,
says: "We Director and Council of New Nether-
land, etc., testify and declare that to day, date
underwritten personally appeared before us Mecho-
wodt, chief Sachem of Marossepinck." Variants
are: Marospinc, 1644; Massepinc, 1656 (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xvi., pp. 15, 56, 369). Mechowodt was
the father of Takapousha, Sachem of the Massa-
peagues at the time of the settlement of Hunting-
ton. See Massapeague.
156. MARRATOOKA: a pond and a farm border-
ing it at Mattituck, Southold town. C. W. Wick-
ham, Esq., the proprietor of the Marratooka
Farm informs me by letter that the name was
varied from Mattituck, first to Marritook and then
to its present form. See Mattituck.
157. M ARSEY : an abbreviation of Massapeague.
According to the records: "This spring (1653,
O. S.) the Dutch governor . . . sent one Govert, a
Dutchman, to Marsey, on Long Island to Nit-
tanahom the Sagamore, to assist and to do unto him
what he would have him do. But the Sagamore
told him he would have nothing to do with it,
whereupon Govert gave the Sagamore a great
kittle to be silent, Nittanahan told him he had
but 20 men and the English had never done him
wrong and he had no cause to fight against
On Long Island 105
them" (Drake's Book of Indians, 8th ed., Book 2,
p. 79). See Massapeague.
158. MASHASHIMUET : name of the springs, on
south side of the Otter pond, Sag Harbor, now
included in Mrs. Russell Sage's playground.
The name is traditional, and was given to me by
Stephen Pharaoh, of Montauk, and Aunt Ollie,
an Indian woman, then living at the Northside.
The locality was the centre of former Indian
sojourns as shell-heaps bear witness, as well as
relics discovered, and graves found. In one of the
latter lately opened, on the hill above the springs,
was found a fine typical "Monitor pipe" of
steatite. The name Mash-ashim-et denotes "at
the great spring, from mash, "great"; ashim,
"spring"; and the locative, -et, "at." The name
Mashashimuet has been revived by Mrs. Russell
Sage and bestowed on the park which she has
given to Sag Harbor. The park includes the
Otter pond and its springs.
1 59. MASHMANOCK : one of the names for Canoe
Place Creek, Southampton town. The Indian
deed of March 14, 1648, to Theophilus Eaton, and
Stephen Goodyear, for the tract known as Oc-
quebauck, says: "Together with the Land and
Meadows, lying on the other side the water,
Southward, so farr as the creeke Mashmanock,
which is the fifth creek from the fresh River,
io6 Indian Place-Names
towards Shinicock" (Books of Deeds, vol. ii., p.
210, Office of the Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.).
This name is probably related to Mashomuck,
with a slight variation. Mashmanock (Mash-
mom-ock) signifies "land or place where there is
moving or dragging a boat," hence a "Canoe
Place." See Mashomuck. See also Algonquian
Series, vol. viii., pp. 41-62, for a discussion of
the related Virginian tribal name Massawomeke,
"those who go and come by boat."
1 60. MASHOMUCK: a neck and a point of land
at the southern extremity of Shelter Island op-
posite Sag Harbor. The name is traditional, and
found only on maps and in a few of the Island
histories, in the forms Meshomac, Marshammock,
Mashomuk, Mashomuck (U. S. Coast Survey);
locally Mashom-uk. In the Brooklyn Eagle Alma-
nac for 1888, 1889, 1890, 1 gave the meaning as the
"great stockade-place," Massa-komuk, from the
suggestion of Prof. E. N. Horsford of Cambridge.
Later investigation, however, compels me to
reject it. Mushawomuk, Mishaumut, Shawmut,
as it is variously given, was the name of Boston
Neck, Mass., and the same name in a variety of
forms appears in other parts of that State, and in
Rhode Island. Our name is no doubt of the same
derivation, of which Trumbull gives the etymo-
logy, viz.: " Mushn or Mishdtn (Eliot) signifies
a boat or canoe; more exactly a canoe made by
On Lon( Island 107
hollowing out the trunk of a tree, as distinguished
from the light and frail bark canoe. In the
vocabularies of the Algonkian dialects, we find
the Old Algonkin shiman; Long Island mashuee,
etc.; in the modern Ojibwa, chemaun ; and
in the Pequot, meshwe. The verb of simple mo-
tion, that which expressed the notion of going,
was in the third person singular of the indicative
present, wm, or as Eliot sometimes wrote it with
the pronominal prefix of the third person, w$m
(in the plural comwog, " they go"). In combina-
tion with other words it denotes the direction,
manner, or agency of going. Eliot writes
-ohham and -horn for the singular, as pummohham,
"he goes by sea," nohham, or nohhom, "he goes by
sailing, he sails" (en nohhanmn, "to sail to," Acts
xx., 1 6), sohham (soh-wm], "he goes forth," etc.
For (smwog, Roger Williams writes, in the Narra-
gansett dialect, homwock, "they go." From
mushsn or meshwe, "boat", and mwog or hom-
wock, would be formed mushahomwog or some-
thing like it: "they go by boat," or "by canoe."
In Roger Williams 's Key, we find this phrase as
one of familiar use in Narragansett, " Cornish -
hommis? Did you come by boat?" (p. 8);
" Comishwnhom? Go you by water?" (p. 109);
" MishfSnhomwock, they go or come by water,"
i. e., by canoe (p. 72). The Indians never em-
ployed a verb in the indicative plural as the name
of a place, but a form very often used for that
io8 Indian Place-Names
purpose was what may be termed a conditional
verbal, or gerundive having the terminative of
the third person singular of the conditional-
present passive in -muk. This form was much
employed where, in English, we should use the
infinitive, or an abstract noun. Examples may
be seen in Eliot's translation of Ecc. iii., 3-7;
a time to kill to build up to weep to dance;
where the verb, preceded by the particle adt
(cf. Latin ad] as nushehteamuk, ayimuk, maumuk,
pumukomuk, etc., signifying (where, or, if) there is
killed, or when killing (building, weeping, etc.)
is. So Mashauwomuk may be literally translated
"where there is going by boat, or where they
go by boat"; and the name was applicable to any
place on a river or arm of the sea from which boats
habitually crossed to the bank or shore opposite,
in a word, a ferry (Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., Dec.
1866, pp. 376, 379). This I believe to be the
derivation of our Meshomuk or Mashomuk and
the location favors this interpretation. The
residence of the Shelter Island Indians on Sachem's
Neck was a short distance north. From Mash-
omuk the settlement of the Montauks at "Three
Mile Harbor" was easily reached by canoe, also
Gardiner's Island, and the village of the Shin-
necocks by the trail from Sag Harbor. On
Cedar (or East) point opposite are found the
indications of an Indian village; from there the
trail goes on a straight line to the Indian village
On Long Island 109
of Ashawagh at Hands Creek, Three Mile Harbor.
See Algonquian Series, vol. viii., pp. 40-62.
161. MASKACHOUNG, Maskutchoung: a neck of
land in the southeastern bounds of Hempstead,
where an Indian village was one time located.
In the articles of agreement between the Governor
of New Netherlands and Tackapousha, March 12,
1656, we find: "That Tackapousha being chosen
Chief Sachem by all the Indians from Massapeag,
Maskahuong," etc. (Thompson's L. I., vol. ii., p.
8). The bounds of Hempstead, May n, 1658,
were: "att the South Sea by a marked tree
made in a neck called Mashkutchoung" (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 416). The form Maskachoung
occurs in 1685. This name denotes "grass land, "
or "on the grass land," and is the equivalent of
the Chippewa (Baraga) mashkode, "prairie"; Mas-
sachusetts, mosketuash (Cotton), "grass"; Narra-
gansett, maskituash, "grass," with the locative
-ong. The neck is on the south part of the great
Hempstead plain. Compare Chippewa (School-
craft maskoding, "prairie"; maskodaong, "in the
162. MASPETH: a village in Newtown, Queen's
Co. See Mespaetches.
163. MASQUETUX : a neck of land at West Islip.
On some maps Masquetux, situated between
no Indian Place-Names
Apple- tree neck and Compowams. "Next is a
neck of land called Masquetux bounded on the
east by a brook of the same name" (Munsell's
Hist. S. C., Islip). There is a possibility that
this is a corrupted form of the earlier name for
this neck, Missatuck or Mispotuck. If not, we
may find its parallel in the Mohegan Muxquataug,
"a place of rushes," designating some particular
part of the neck. See Mispatuck and Missatuck.
164. MASSABACK: see Massakack.
165. MASSABARKEM : Gravesend Neck, King's
Co. (De Kay's Indian Names on L. /.). The
confirmatory deed of Gravesend was signed in
1650 by four Indian Sachems, who called the
Indian name of the place, Massabarkem (Mun-
sell's Hist. King's Co., p. 18). This name is
probably badly corrupted; its etymology has not
1 66. MASSAKACK: hill in Huntington town.
On March 18, 1702, Isaac Deriemer and others
petition the Governor for a license to purchase
"a tract of land called by the Indians Massa-
back, in English half hill, in the County of
Suffolk, about three miles long and two in breadth,
close by the town of Huntington." On Dec. II,
1702, the same parties petition again for the same
tract . "called by the Indians Massakack " (Coll. of
On Long' Island in
Land Papers, Office of the Sec'y of State, pp. 58,
64). This is probably the locality now known
as the "Half Hollow Hills." It signifies "the
great hill land," from massa, "great," "big,"
"large," etc.; adchu, "hill"; auke, "land."
Thus, Mass-adch-auke, corrupted to Massaback
or Massakack. This is the same as Mass-adchu-
setts without the locative terminative -sett, = es-set.
See the discussion of Massachusetts in the Journal
of American Folk-Lore, vol. xvii., 1904, p. 175.
167. MASSAPEAGUE, Marsapeague: the home
of the tribe of Indians known as the Massapeags,
located on Fort Neck now belonging to the Floyd-
Jones estate, in the town of South Oyster Bay.
At the period of settlement, two Indian forts were
found there. The remains of one were or are
still visible. The other, on the southernmost
point of the salt meadow, consisted of palisados
set in the meadow. The tide and storms many
years since wore away the land where it stood,
and the place is now covered by water. It was
no doubt the situation of these forts that gave
the name to the place, being on the "great water
land," or being "land on the great cove." Its
earliest mention is found in the Dutch records
(see Marossepinck) . Variations are: Masepeage,
1643; Marsey, 1653; Massapeage, 1657; Marsa-
peake, 1658; Messepeake, 1658; Mashpeag, 1675;
Masha-Peage, 1675, etc. The same name is found
H2 Indian. Place-Names
in Connecticut, Massapeag (Mohegan), tract of
land sold by Uncas to Richard Haughton, 1658.
Its eastern bound was a long cove. The name
Massa-pe-auke means "great water land," or
"land on the great cove " (Trumbull). Mashpee,
in Barnstable County, Mass., seems to be the
same word. See Massapequa.
1 68. MASSAPEQUA : a pond and brook in
South Oyster Bay town. The R. R. station of
the Montauk Division of the L. I. R. R., formerly
known as South Oyster Bay, was changed during
the summer of 1890 to Massapequa. It is a
variation of Massapeague. See Massapeague.
169. MASSEPE: a river or creek in the southern
part of the town of Jamaica, perhaps the one now
called Thurston's Creek. It is mentioned in
connection with the laying out of the squadrons
of men for mowing the Jamaica meadows, July
1657: "The 2d squadron (6 men named) are to
mowe eastward ffrom ye afforesayd to ye great
river called Mas sepe" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv.,
p. 505). Here we have a Mississippi River on
Long Island, so-called because it was greater
than others in the vicinity. The name is com-
pounded from massa, "great"; "big," etc.; sepe
= Chippewa sibi; Massachusetts, sepu; Narra-
gansett, seip; Shawnee, sepe; Unkechaug, sipus;
On Long' Island 113
Mohegan, seepo, " a. river " ; strictly " a long river. "
Thus Mass-sepe means "a great (long) river."
170. MASSAPOOTUPAUG : a locality in the west-
ern part of Southampton town. Mentioned but
once in the town records, January 15, 1662:
"part of the Shinnecock Indians give to Capt.
Topping land from Niamack over to the old gutt,
and their bounds goe to Masspootupaug which is
the west end on the south side" (S. H. R., vol. ii.,
p. 27). The name is derived from massa, "great" ;
pootuppog, "a bay or cove that has a narrow
inlet from a river or sea." Eliot uses ptuppog
and pr&tupag for bay in Joshua xv., 2, 5. The
modern Abnaki is podebag. "The literal mean-
ing is ' a bulging out, ' or ' jutting ' (podode) of
the water inland ' ' (Trumbull) . The Unkechaug
peta'pagh, "bay," was recorded by Jefferson.
As the Shinnecock bounds in 1665 went to Apocuck
Creek, now known as the Beaver-dam River, this
was probably the "East Bay," south of West
Hampton. It narrows to a width of only a
quarter of a mile at Mastic Neck, and besides an
inlet from the ocean formerly existed on the south
beach of that bay. In the Brooklyn Eagle
Almanac for 1888, I gave the meaning as
"great boggy meadow," f rom . pootapaug, "boggy
meadow," related to Chippewa petobeg, "a
bog," and Abnaki poteba n , "to sink in the mire"
(Trumbull). It is spelled and pronounced similar
114 Indian Place-Names
to the preceding ; but I regard the former as being
171. MASTIC: a broad neck of land in Brook-
haven township. This neck is also divided into
many smaller necks, most of which bear abori-
ginal names. As a name, it belonged originally
to the large estuary or cove on the east side of
the neck, now called "Forge River," as proven
by the following extract from the Indian deed of
1674: "land that lyeth betweene a River called
Conitticut, to another River called Mastick"
(B. R., vol. i., p. 32). It occurs as Mastuck in a
deed of 1692; Mastic, 1693. The same name
occurs in Connecticut as "Mystic River, " between
Stonington and Groton. The "great river" of
Boston Bay, which separates Charlestown from
Maiden and Chelsea, its estuary receiving Charles
River, bears the same name. The word signifies
the ' ' great river. ' ' Massa (or missi) ' l great ' ' ; -tuck
or -tick, "a tidal river." Mastic was the great
tidal river or cove, as compared with others in
the same locality. See "Forge River" on maps
of Long Island.
172. MATANUCKE: a name of Staten Island,
Richmond Co., N. Y. (French's Gazetteer of
N. Y., 1860). "Among the 'Patroons', as they
were styled, was Michael Pauw, who purchased
Matanucke, now called Staten Island, from the
On Long' Island 115
Indians by deed, dated Aug. 19, 1660" (Coll.
N. J. Hist. Soc., vol. i., p. 18). This name is of
similar import to Matinnecock and other names
denoting "a place of observation," "a look
out," etc. This appellation was generally given
to high land, islands, etc. The island seems to
have been earlier and more generally known as
Aquehonga Manacknong. See Aquehonga Manack-
nong and Matinnecock.
173. MATINNECOCK: a point of land, island,
and village in the town of Oyster Bay, Queen's
Co. It is difficult to locate the exact spot to
which this name was originally applied. The
Matinnecock tribe roamed about and that fact
gave the name to a number of places, perhaps far
removed from their ancient home. Thompson
says: "East Island is called Matinnecock Island,
the extreme point of which, though improperly,
is yet called Matinicock Point" (Thompson's L. /.,
vol. i., p. 495). The earliest record that we
have been able to find is April 15, 1644, when:
"Ganwarowe Sachem of Matinnekonck, acting for
the adjoining villages, viz. : Matinnekonck, Maros-
pinc, and Siketenhacky , requested to have peace
and to plant in the above villages which was
granted him" (Col. Hist. N. F., vol. xiv., p. 56).
In 1645, the Matinnecocks were residing on the
Nissequogue River. Van Tienhoven wrote in
1 650 : ' ' Martin Garretsen's Bay or Martinnehouch
Ii6 Indian Place-Names
is much deeper and wider than Oyster Bay, and
runs westward in, divides into three rivers, two
of which are navigable, the smallest stream runs
up in front of the Indian village called Mar-
tinnehouch where they have their plantation.
This tribe is not strong, and consists of about 30
families. In and about this bay there were for-
merly great numbers of Indian plantations, which
now lie waste and vacant" (Col. Hist.N. F., vol.
xiv., p. 314). Hon. C. R. Street (in Munsell's
Hist. S. C.) locates this on Huntington Bay.
But in 1655 we find: " Mattinnekonck Bay also
called Martin Garrettsen's Bay ... west of
Oyster Bay" (Col. Hist. N. K, vol. xiv., p. 314).
We meet with the following variations besides the
above: Matinnecoke, 1653; Montinnecok, 1656;
Matinnecogh, 1656; Matinnecoke, 1663; Metinicok,
1672. This name is descriptive of "high land,"
probably given to one of the many high hills
that dot that section perhaps the high "Harbor
Hill," in North Hempstead. M ' atinne-auke-ut
signifies "at the place to search, or to look around
from," "at the place of observation," "at the
hilly land." A Matinnekonck (on some maps
Tinnekonck) Island, now Burlington Island, is in
New Jersey. Matinnack Islands in Maine are
mentioned by Capt. John Smith (Gen. Hist. N.E.,
1624) and have no doubt the same meaning. The
components of the word are m'atinne, correspond-
ing to Massachusetts natinneham, "he searches";
On Long' Island 117
Delaware (Lenape) latonniken, "to search, to ex-
amine"; auke, "land," "place"; -ut, "at or near."
174. MATOWCAS: name of the territory on
which stands the city of Brooklyn. "This town
formerly composed part of a powerful Indian
Sachemdom; and with other parts of the Island
bore the Indian name of Matowcas" (Furman's
Antiq. of L. /.). A variation of Matowcas is
Mattanwake or Meitowax. See Meitowax.
175. MATSEPE: village of the Massapeags,
Fort Neck, South Oyster Bay. This is the Dutch
notation for Massapeague, named in Journal of
New Netherlands, 1647: "a troup of one hundred
and twenty men . . . marched towards Heem-
sted (where there is an English Colonie depen-
dant on us) . . . our force was divided into two
divisions Van der Hil with fourteen English
towards the smallest, and Eighty men towards the
largest village named Matsepe, both of which were
successful, killing about one hundred and twenty
men; of ours one man remained on the field and
three were wounded" (Doc. Hist. N. Y., vol.
iv., p. 1 6). The above event is given in all the
Island histories as taking place in 1653, but as
this was written in 1647, it must have been much
earlier." See Massapeague.
176. MATTANWAKE: a name of Long Island.
Hubbard, in his History of New England, says:
Ii8 Indian Place-Names
"That at the time of the grant to the Earl of
Sterling, in 1635, it was called by the Indians
Mattanwake." But in a copy of the grant at
hand, we find it quoted: "All that Island or
Islands heretofore comonly called by the several
name or names of Matowa or Long Island"
(Col. Hist. N. F., vol. xiv., p. 30, Note). See
177. MATTAWOMMAX: a locality in Brook-
haven town, mentioned in a deed from John
Thompson to John Pallmer, dated March 2,
1685, for his "share of meado at Mattawommax,"
recorded in Sessions No. I, Suffolk County,
Clerk's Office, Riverhead, L. I. (Copy by O. B.
Ackerly, Esq.). This name belongs to Trum-
bull's Class 3, and signifies "where the going is
bad," referring no doubt to the meadow. The
components of the word are matta, "bad";
worn, "he goes or proceeds from" (d)m in Eliot);
auke, "land," "place." See Mattemoy.
178. MATTEMOY: one of the smaller necks
of Mastic, Brookhaven town. According to
several of the Long Island histories. It is evi-
dently traditional, for it does not appear in any
of the records. De Kay and Thompson give it as
Mottemog. In 1646 Pawquash an Indian was sen-
tenced to be whipped because "he did blas-
phemously say that Jesus Christ was mattamoy
On Long Island 119
and naught" (N. H. Col. Rec., vol. i., p. 262).
Eliot uses mattamog (Prov. xxvii., 2) plural for
"fool." Therefore this may have been the per-
sonal name of an Indian living there, who they
called Mattemoy, "a fool," or it may be derived
from Mattamaug, "bad or poor fishing-place."
The following is of interest here:
u Mottemog: This is the Indian name of a 'Neck'
on the south side of Long Island, 64 miles from
the City of New York. A Neck, in the Long
Island vernacular, means a parcel of land fronting
salt water between two creeks. Mottemog has
Sheep Pen Creek on its east side and John Neck
Creek on its west side at a point on the Great
South Bay where the Bay is only a mile wide, so
this Neck is only about a mile and a quarter from
the broad Atlantic. The undersigned offers for
sale 250 acres of Mottemog (there are only 400
acres in the whole Neck), a tract, 1,700 feet wide
on the Bay (with riparian rights), a parallelogram
in shape, over a mile long, and about equally
divided between meadow, arable land (very
fertile), and big oak timber. It can be trans-
formed by a skilful landscape architect into a
beautiful home at slight cost, unless the owner
desires expensive buildings. Not many neighbors,
but all desirable, being descendants of original
owners from Colonial times, occupying large es-
tates. The land can be had for half value. O. B.
Ackerly, 146 E. 34th Street, New York City."
I2O Indian Place-Names
179. MATTHABANKS: Great South Beach op-
posite the town of Brookhaven. In a memoran-
dum on file (endorsed "a record for ye beach,"
March 15, 1668-9): "Owenamchock, the Eastward
bounds of Tobacus Land sold to Setauk, Maltha-
banks the name of ye Beach, the wester Bounds is
Nanmicake (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 23). This name is
probably analogous to the Massachusetts (Eliot)
Wussabanunk, "a bank of a river," etc.; Micmac
kaskibundk, "the bank of a river." The Massa-
chusetts Wussabanunk or Wussapinunk is com-
posed of wus, "brim," "edge"; appin (from
appu) "he sits"; -unk, "place" (Trumbull).
1 80. MATTITUCK: a village, bay, and creek
in the western part of Southold town. The name
was given originally to a tract of land, partly in
Southold and including part of the present town
of Riverhead, which was set off as a separate
township in 1792. It is first mentioned in the
Indian deed of 1648: "All that tract of land
lying between Conchake and Ucquebaak commonly
called Mattatuck" (B. H. R., vol. vi., p. 76). Again
in 1661 : "lands att Oyster ponds, Curchaug, Occa-
bauck, and Mattatuck should be surveyed" (S. R.,
vol. i., p. 350) ; in 1665 " Corchaug and Mattaducke
and all other tracts of land ... by what name
soever called" (Indian Deed, S. R., vol. i., p. 250) ;
in 1667: "Lands and meadows . . . commonly
known by the name of ... Mattatuck" (S. R.,
On Long' Island 121
vol. i., p. 230). Variations are Mattatuck, 1648;
Matatucke, 1653; Mattaducke, 1665; Mattatuk,
1685; Mattetuck, 1843, etc. It appears as the
Indian name of three different localities in Con-
necticut. According to Trumbull "The name
(Matah'tugk) designates a 'place without wood,'
or 'badly wooded,' 'destitute of trees.' : Wm. S.
Pelletreau, in his Geographical Names, says,
after giving the above meaning: "A far more
probable derivation is 'matta' (a form of 'massa')
and 'tuck,' a creek, and the meaning 'great creek,'
a meaning which is amply sustained by the geo-
graphical features of the place." Trumbull is
the author of both derivations but inclines more
to the first, as does the present writer. In 1654
(only fourteen years after the settlement) there
was such a scarcity of timber in the town of South-
old that they had to enact a law prohibiting the
cutting of timber, "from the utmost part of the
town westward towards Mattetuck to the furthest
poynt of that neck of land . . . Plumb gutt."
In 1660 they passed another law to the same
effect (S. R., vol. i., pp. 319-335). Mattituck
would therefore seem to be derived from matta,
"no"; -tuck, -tugk, "tree."
181. MATTOCK: a swamp in Southampton
town near "North Sea." First mentioned in an
entry of 1743, viz. : "lot of land lying in the North
sea line joyning to Mattock swamp." Again in
122 Indian Place-Names
1763: " a difference arose between Samuel Jagger
and Thomas Jennings about some meadow at a
place called Matuck swamp." (S. H. R., vol. iii.,
pp. 40, 240). This name might be translated
"bad land," from Matt-auke (matt, "bad";
auke, land"), and this would describe the swamp,
but I am inclined to think the swamp takes its
name from an Indian who formerly lived there;
besides, the land adjoining bears evidences of
182. MATTUCK: a brook at East Moriches,
Brookhaven town. "This neck ' Watchogue ' con-
tains the eastern section of the village of East
Moriches, and is bounded on the east by a small
brook called Mattuck" (Munsell's Hist. Brook-
haven). Mattuck is derived from matt, "bad";
-tuck, "a creek." It may be, however, an
abbreviated form from a longer term.
183. MEACOX: a farming district, and inland
bay at Bridge Hampton, Southampton town. In
the early records of the township, Meacox is
always referred to as a tract of land, and in the
division of the land among the settlers as a plain,
the bay being called "Mecox Water," for the
reason that it borders the plain on the south. We
find the locality mentioned as early as 1644, viz.:
" Yt is further ordered that . . . two persons, one
of which shall goe to viewe and espie yf there be
On Long' Island 123
any whales cast up as far as the South Harbor,
and the other shall goe unto the third pond beyond
Meecocks, beginning at the windmill" (S. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 32). Variations are: Meacoxe, 164.6;
Mecocks, 1654; Mecoks, 1654; Meacocks, 1657;
Meecooks, 1659; Meacox, 1677, etc. This local
name, by all the historians of Long Island, has
been taken to be of Indian origin. I have had
the same supposition and, in the Brooklyn Eagle
Almanac for 1888, 1889, 1890, gave its significa-
tion as " a plain bare of timber,' ' regarding the word
as a variation of the Delaware (Zeisberger)
megucke; Massachusetts (Eliot), mukoshqut, "a
plain." This derivation I now believe to be an
error. Halkett Lord, Esq., suggests that it is
from " Meacock" an obsolete English term re-
corded in Cotgrave (1611), Phillips (1706), Bailey
(1737), etc., with the sense of "ninny," "coward,"
"effeminate fellow"; French, "bedier." Still for
all the foregoing, I believe it to be of Indian
origin, and a survival of the name of one of the
signers of the Southampton Indian deed of Dec.
13, 1640, where it appears as Secommecock =
Secom-mecock = Mecock. With the mark of the
English possessive, as it often occurs, we have
Mecock's, which is a very probable derivation.
184. MECHAWANIENCK : a locality in King's
Co. Mentioned in the Indian deed of New
Utrecht, Nov. 22, 1652, viz.: "the said land
124 Indian Place-Names
stretching from behind Mr. Paulus' land, called
Gouwanis, across the hills to Mechawanienck lying
on the south east side Amersfoort (Flatlands) and
thence past Gravesend to the sea following the
marks on the trees" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv.,
p. 190). This is the only mention of this locality
that I have been able to find from an early record.
This name probably indicated an "old Indian
trail or path," from mechowi, "old," "ancient,
old in use"; anink (cf. Delaware aney, "road,"
"walking road," "path"); thus the "old path
185. MEITOWAX: one of the names of Long
Island. Variously given as Matouwac, Matou-
acks, Meilowacks, Metoac, Meitowacks, Matowcas,
Mattanwake, and Matowa. It appears by these
names on all the Dutch maps from Lucini about
1631, to Evans in 1775. In the patent of Long
Island, etc., by Charles II. to his brother, the Duke
of York, 1664, Meitowax is given as being its
Indian name. Benson, in his Memorial read
before the N. Y. Historical Society in 1846,
derives Mattoway or Meitowax from the Montauks,
and says: "All of which, however, differently
spelled or pronounced by the w r hites, doubtless
purport the same." The late Henry R. School-
craft, in a paper read before the same Society
in 1845, derived the name from the same tribe.
Both are in error, as the name was not so derived.
On Long' Island 125
It is by synthetical resolution, Meht-anaw-ack,
"the land of the periwinkle," or "country of the
ear-shell," Massachusetts, meht, "an ear";
anaw, "a shell"; -ack, "land," or "country."
See Algonguian Series, vol. ii., pp. 9-18, for a
further discussion of this Indian name for Long
1 86. MEMANUSACK, Memanusuck: the stream
of water from which the present village of Stony
Brook, Brookhaven town, takes its name. It is
first found on record in the Indian deed for Smith-
town, Sept. 29, 1650, viz.: "Certain quantity
of land at a river knowne by the name of Nesa-
quake River, and from that eastward to a River
called Memanusack lying on the north side of the
Island" (Munsell's Hist. S. C.). Also occurs as
Memanusuck. No doubt the same as Mahman-
suck, or Maumansuck in Connecticut, denoting a
"place where two streams meet," or perhaps "a
brook connecting two ponds. " This prefix means
"to bring together" (Trumbull's Indian Names
in Connecticut}. This brook is an outlet of a
pond into the harbor. The name would thus
be derived from memanu, cognate with Delaware
mawenemen, "to bring together," "to gather";
Massachusetts, mianau, "he assembles," "gathers
together"; -suck, "brook," "outlet."
187. MEROSUCK: Canoe Place, Southampton
126 Indian Place-Names
town. "The isthmus between Shinnecock and
Peconic Bays was called by the Indians Merosuc
or Canoe-place, the spot across which they hauled
their canoes from one bay to the other" (Thomp-
son's L. I., vol. i., p. 360). Also Merosuck (Fur-
man's Antiq. L. /.). This name is not found in the
town records. The late G. R. Howell doubted
the name and its application. Its etymology
has not been ascertained.
188. MERRICK: a name now given to a small
settlement, five miles southeast of the village of
Hempstead, L. I. It is first found on record in the
Indian deed for Hempstead, Nov. 13, 1643, viz.:
"That we of Masepeage, Merriack or Rockaway
wee hoes names are hereunto written have sett
ouer hand and sold unto Robert Fordham and
John Carman on Long Island Inglishmen the half
moiety or equal part of the great plain lying to-
wards the southside" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv.,
P- 53) Variants are: Merioke, 1647; Meracock,
1656; Moroke, Mericoke, Mericock land, 1675;
Merricock, "planting land voluntarily left, " 1675;
Marrocock, 1684. In 1675, Tackapousha, Sachem
of Mashpeag, "declares yt Mercock Land which
Hempstead enjoy was never paid for" (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 696). This name seems to
have been originally applied to the Hempstead
plains, which it describes. Merricock represents
Massachusetts Mehchi-auke, "bare land"; or
On Long' Island 127
Mehchi-auke-ut, "at the barren land," "bare of
trees," "a plain." The components of the name
would then be merri (Massachusetts mehchi,
mehcheyeu} " it is barren ' ' ; auke, ' ' land ' ' ; -ut, " at. "
189. MESPAETCHES: a name originally given
to a swamp and creek in the western part of
Queen's Co. The "stream is now known as
Newtown Creek. This name is first mentioned
in the Indian deed of Aug. i, 1638, when the
Council of New Netherland secured for the West
India Co.: "a certain tract of land lying on
Long Island, reaching in length from the plan-
tation of George Rapaljee (called Rinnegak-
onck) a good league and a half to the Mes-
paechtes and in width from the East River about
one league to the copses of the same Mespaechtes
(Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 54). Munsell
(Hist, of King's Co.) has, " about one league to the
swamp of Mespaechtes." Thompson (L. /., vol.
ii., p. 137) says: "The name (Maspeth} originally
belonged to the western part of the town (New-
town) the latter being probably the appellation
applied to a tribe of Indians residing about the
head of the creek." Variations are Mespatchis
Kil, 1642; Mespachtes Kil, 1646; Mespacht, 1654;
Mespaat, 1656; Mespath, 1661. English forms
Maspeth and Mashpath occur in 1703. The name
may have been applied to the resident at the
swamp and his family, but the word bears great
128 Indian Place-Names
resemblance to Mecht-pe-es-it, "at the bad water
place," which would apply to the locality, a low
swampy region, now being gradually covered
by the march of improvements. It may be the
parallel of the Micmac (Rand) mespaak, "over-
flowed" (by the tide). The locality even now is
occasionally overflowed by the water backing up
on very high tides. See Algonquian Series, vol.
ii., pp. 39-41.
190. MESSEMENNUCK, Messememuck: a creek
at the head of Peconic Bay. Mentioned in the
testimony of Paucamp in 1660, "an Indian then
80 years of age, descended from the House of
the Sachems in the end of the Island," who
testified: "that the first in his time [the Acaboug
Indians] did possesse the upland and meadows in
the swamp side of the river being in the west end
of the Bay five creeks, the first Messemennuck,
the second Nobbs, the third Suggamuck, the
fourth Weekewackmamish, the fifth Toyoungs,"
(Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p. 213, Office of theSec'y
of State, Albany, N. Y.). In some copies the
name appears as Messememuck. There is some
difficulty about locating this creek, owing to the
encroachment of water on the land, for there is a
tradition extant, that the present Flanders Bay
was originally landlocked and has been opened
during the past two hundred years. If this is not
a fact, then we must give the name to LoPontz
On Long' Island 129
or Havens' Creek, which empties into Flanders
Bay thence into Peconic River at Broad Meadows
Point. If tradition is correct, we must give
the name to the Peconic River. This seems to
be corroborated by early records. The name is
to be interpreted as Messem-amuck, "an alewife
fishing-place," from messem = Massachusetts
(Cotton), ommis-suog; Narragansett, aumswog
(Williams) ; Pequot, umsuauges (Stiles) ; Abnaki,
aumsoo-ak, "alewives" (Alosa vernalis, Mitch.);
-amuck, "a fishing-place." We find in the
deposition of Rev. Thos. James, 1667, that
Paquatoun, the Montauk Counselor, told him:
"that the bounds of the Shinacut Indians: since
the conquest of those Indians; which formerly
many years since lived at Ackobauk: did reach to a
river where they use to catch ye fish we commonly
called Alewives: the name of that River: he said
is Pehick-konuk . . . two other old women in-
formed him: that they gathered flags for matts
within that tract of land : But since those Indians
were conquered that lived att Ackobauk the Shino-
cut bounds went to the river Pehik konuk where
the Indians catched Alewives" (E. H. R., vol. i.,
pp. 260, 261; MunselTs Hist. S. C., E. H. town).
Wood thus describes the fish in question: "Ale-
wives be a kind of fifh which is much like a herring,
which in the latter part of Aprill come up to the
frefh Rivers to spawne, in such multitudes as is
almoft incredible, preffing up in fuch fhallow
130 Indian Place-Names
water as will fcarce permit them to swimme, having
likewife fuch longing defire after the frefh water
ponds, that no beatings with poles, or forcive
agitations by other divices, will caufe them to
returne to the fea, till they have caft their fpawne
(N. E. Prospect, 1634, P- 38)- See Suggamuck.
191. MESSTOPASS: a dirty hole of water near
Mannatto Hill, in the town of Oyster Bay. A
boundary mark in the Indian deed of Nov. 1 8,
1695, viz.: "from thence to ye sd Hole of dirt
and water near Mannatto Hill called by the Indians
Messtoppas" (Thompson, vol. i., p. 507). In De
Kay, Messtopass. The Delaware machtit, ' ' filthy, ' '
"dirty"; mecht, "bad"; Massachusetts, nuppisse,
"a small pool of water"; indicate the etymology
of the name, Macht'uppisse, "a filthy pool of
1 92 . MIAMEGG : a creek near the present village
of Jamesport, Riverhead town. The name is
found on record in the Indian deed of March 14,
1648, viz.: "Provided the aforesaid Indians
(Occomboomaguns and the wife of Mahahannuck)
may enjoy during their lives, a small peice of land,
to Plant upon, lying between the two creeks
Miamegg and Assasquage" (Book of Deeds, vol.
ii., p. 210, Office of the Sec'y of State, Albany,
N. Y.). Variants are Miamogue (Munsell's Hist.
S. C.)\ Miomog (Thompson, 1845); Wyamaug,
On Long' Island 131
etc. This name was originally applied to the
creek, and not to the point, as stated in some
of the Island histories. It is probably from the
equivalent of the Narragansett midwene, "a
gathering together," "a meeting"; Massachu-
setts (Eliot) miyaneog, "they gather together";
miy-amaug, thus means "a meeting fishing-
place" from miy, "together"; -amaug, "fishing-
place." That is, a locality where the Indians
came together to fish, probably for alewives, or
menhaden to be used for fertilizing their corn-
193. MIAMOGUE: "The village of Jamesport,
Riverhead town, is very pleasantly situated on a
point projecting into Peconic Bay and bearing the
Indian name Miamogue" (Munsell's Hist. S. C.}.
194. MINASSEROKE: Little Neck, now called
"Strong's Neck, at Setauket." Little Neck,
called by the Indians Minasseroke, lies between
Old-field or Conscience Bay and Setauket Harbor.
It is believed to have been thickly populated, and
a favorite residence of the Sachem. A part of
it is still designated as the "Indian Ground,"
which was originally conveyed by the natives to
Andrew Gibb, in 1685" (Thompson's L. /.,
vol. i., p. 431). De Kay gives Minesuc and Min-
asouke. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac, 1888,
132 Indian Place-Names
1889, 1890, I derived this name from the huckle-
berry or some other small berry formerly gathered
there (Chippewa, minais, "little berry" ; Delaware,
minall, "huckleberry"). This may be wrong and
the true meaning may be found in the above
quotation, viz.: "Indian Ground," being an old
Indian corn-field, maize land, and the word turn
out to be an abbreviation of Eachimineas-auke,
195. MINAUSSUMS: a neck of land in the town
of Brookhaven, so named in an Indian deed of
April i, 1690. An error for Winnecroscoms
196. MINNAHANONCK : Blackwell's Island in
the East River. In 1637: "Two chiefs of the
Marychtenwikingh (in Brooklyn) surrender and
convey to Wouter Van Twiller, Director General
of New Netherland, two islands, situate in the
Helle gat, of which the larger is called Tenkenas
and the smaller Minnahanonck, lying to the west
of the larger" (Col. Hist. N. ., vol. xiv., p. 5).
Also occurs as Minnehanock (French's Gazetteer,
p. 419, Note). The same name is found in
Connecticut as Manhannock, "Wright Island"
opposite Wethersfield. According to Trumbull,
"The name ( = munnohan-auke) means 'island
place' or 'land on the island.' " The components
On Long Island 133
of the word would then be minnahan, "island";
-onck, -ock (-auke), "land," "place."
197. MINNAPAUGS: a small pond at Southold,
L. I. "Little pond by the sound at Hortons Point,
sits like a May Queen, embowered in trees and
flowers, forever looking out upon the blue waters
of the sound" (Note by J. Wickham Case,
S. R., vol. ii., p. 530) ; Certificate of Wm. Salmon,
1645: " Monnepaught at the fresh pann" (S. R.,
vol. ii., p. 276). A deed of 1649: "Wm. Salmon
sells three parts of his upland lying betwixt Tom's
creeke and Mr. Goodyears land reaching to a
fresh pond lying on the North sea with an Island
of trees standing in it" (S. R., vol. i., p. 176).
Bounds of Hashamomuk, 1660: "that land ad-
joining Tom's creek . . . and so along to the
North east to a place called Minnapaugs, being a
little pond and a parcell of trees standing by it"
(vol. i., p. 208). These extracts describe the pond
and also give its signification: Minna-pe-auke,
"little island pond," minna being the diminutive
of manhan, denoting "little island"; pe-auke,
"water place," or paug (inseparable generic), "a
198. MINNESUNK: a word compounded in
1866 by Mr. George R. Howell, Assistant State
Librarian at Albany, and bestowed on a pond in
Southampton town at North Sea. This name
134 Indian Place-Names
was probably made up from the Siouan minne,
signifying "water," and the Algonkian sunk or
saunks, the "Queen" or "Sachem's wife"; the
name being intended to mean the "Queen of the
water." The first component was evidently
taken from Minnehaha (cf. Minnesota, etc.) in
which word minne = mini, "water," in the Teton,
a Siouan dialect. The name is thus hybrid
Siouan-Algonkian. Delaware mbi, "water," how-
ever, appears in some old vocabularies as minne.
(A. F. c.)
199. MINNEWITS: an island at the western
end of Long Island Sound, probably either
"Hart's," or "City Island." Mentioned in a
journal of a voyage in 1663, viz.: "When the ebb
was passed we weighed anchor, passed Hellgate
at low water, and arrived by laveering and rowing
near Minnewits Island, where we stopt. " Also
Minnewits, 1673 (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. ii., pp.
385, 655). Although resembling, this is not an
Indian name, but a form of Minuit, Peter Minuit,
a former owner of the island and Director of
New Netherland; his name is sometimes given
in the early records as Minnewits (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. i., p. 291).
200. MINNISAIS: Bedlow's Island, New York
Harbor, now the site of the Statue of Liberty.
It is a Chippewa name bestowed by Henry R.
On Long' Island 135
Schoolcraft in 1843, Minnisais, "the lesser is-
land" (Go wans 's Bibliotheca Americana; Trans-
actions, N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1844).
201. MIRRACHTAUHACKY: Dutch notation for
Montauk. This form of spelling is found on
record in the treaty of May 29, 1645; when
Wittaneymen Sachem appeared before the Council
of New Netherland, declaring to be impowered
by his brethren, naming among other Weyrin-
teynich [Wiandance], Sachem of Mirrachtauhacky
(Col. Hist. N. F., vol. xiv., p. 60). De Kay cites:
11 Merautahacky an unknown locality on Long
Island" (Indian Names of L. /.). See Montauk.
202. MISPATUCK, Mispotuck: a neck of land in
Islip town. In the deed by the Van Cortlandts
to John Mowbray, March 2, 1705, for the neck
called Compawis . . . bounded west by neck
called Misputuck . . . Mispotuck neck bounded
west by Apple tree neck" (Letter from O. B.
Ackerly, Esq.). A deed of 1703, calls this neck
Missatuck. Again Thompson (L. I., vol. i., p.
447) has, "Thence to Mispatuc (or UdalTs Brook)
on the west." Later still the name appears as
Masquetux. In my Algonquian Series (vol. ii.,
pp. 41-42) I suggested the same derivation for
Mispatuc, as Maspeth, "an overflowing tidal
stream, or a bad water place." I see no reason
for changing the etymology. See Mespaetches.
136 Indian Place-Names
203. MISSATUCK: a neck of land and brook in
the western part of Islip town. The brook is now
designated as Udall's Brook. The Indian deed
of June i, 1703, to the Van Cortlandts for the
neck called Compowams, has the "neck called
Missatuck on the west" (Thompson's L. I.,
vol. i., p. 447). The various names for this neck
are so similar it is hard to tell which should be
the true form. This form might mean "a great
creek or river," from massa, or missa, "great";
-tuck, "creek or tidal river"; or it may have
designated some large tree which served as a
bound-mark. Massa, "great"; -tugk or -tuck,
"a tree." See Mispatuck and Masquetux.
204. MISSIPAUG: name suggested by Mr.
George R. Howell for the "Big Fresh Pond" west
of the road from Southampton to North Sea. The
Indian equivalent of "big fresh pond," literally
"great water place" (Howell's Hist. Southamp-
ton, 2d ed., 1887, p. 141). The components of
the word are missi, "great;" -paug, "water-
205. MOCHGONNEKONCK: the Dutch notation
for Shinnecock. So named in the following
treaty: "Before us the Director and Council of
New Netherland appeared Wittaneymen, Sachem
of Mochgonnekonck, declaring to be empowered
by his brethren, named as follows, to wit Rochkouw,
On Long Island 1137
the greatest Sachem of Cotsjewaminck, Mama-
wichtouw, Sachem of Catsjeyick, Weyrinteynich,
Sachem of Mirrachtauhacky, and said, as well in his
own name as in that of his brethren aforesaid, that
they had taken under their protection the villages
named, Ouheyinchkingh, Sichteyhacky , Sicketauy-
hacky, Nesinckqueghacky, at which place the
Matinnekonck now reside, and Rickouhacky, and
requested to walk in a firm bond of friendship
with us and promised that the Christians should
experience at the hands of his people, or of those
above named villages, nothing but every kindness,
and as a proof of their good disposition, they
offered to go against our enemies, which he has
done, and brought a head and hands of the enemy,
and has agreed with us to aid our people from
henceforth against the Indians our enemies, which
we have accepted. In ratification of this treaty,
we have given a present to the above named chiefs,
with promise not to molest them so long as he and
the above named villages remain in their duty,
but to show them all possible friendship. In
testimony of the truth the original is signed by us,
confirmed by our seal and handed to the chief, the
seal being pendant thereto the 29 of May, 1645,
in Fort Amsterdam, New Netherland" (Col.
Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 60. See also Thompson's
L. I. (vol. i., p. 335). Ruttenber mistakenly sup-
poses the place to be unlocated and the Sachem
Wittaneymen to be Takapousha. The brethren
138 Indian Place-Names
named show that they all belonged at the east
end. They were given a certificate of protection
the previous year (1644) by the English, wherein
Wittanaymen is spelled Weenakamin, thus proving
that he was the Sachem of Shinnecock, or Moch-
gonnekonck of the Dutch.
206. MOEUNG: end of the beach at Gravesend,
Queen's Co., N. Y. The Indian deed of July,
1684, given by Crackewasco, Arrenopeah, Mamekto
and Annenges for a "parcel of land commonly
called by the Indians Makeopaco beginning at the
most eastward end of the beach called by the
Indians Moeung bounded on the westmost side
by the land heretofore purchased from Chip-
pahig" (Munsell's Hist. King's Co.). This name
probably refers to the meadows at the end of
the beach : Moe-ung, ' ' black," or ' ' miry place.' ' A
name with the same prefix occurs in Stonington,
Conn., as Mooapaske, which Trumbull translates
a "black, muddy, or miry land, Md>e-pesugke."
The components of the word Moeung would thus
be moe ( = Massachusetts msi, moyeu, "ordure,"
"filth," "black"), "filth," "mire"; -ung, locative,
207. MOGKOMPSKUT : a large boulder on the
Hands Creek road. Three Mile Harbor, East
Hampton town. This name was given to me by
the late Stephen Pharaoh. It signifies "at the
On Long Island 139
great rock." I do not know of a larger one on
eastern Long Island. The component parts of
the word are mogk-, "great"; -ompsk, "rock";
208. MOHANNIS: a Sagamore of Oyster Bay.
209. MOMOWETA: a pond at Mattituck, now
called Lake Momoweta, from the Sachem of Cor-
chaug. His name occurs with those of his three
brothers on the East Hampton Indian deed of
1648. He appeared before the Commissioners of
the United Colonies of New England in 1644,
soliciting peace and protection, there his name is
spelled Moughmaitow (Plymouth Col. Rec., vol.
ix., p. 18); Mowmetow (Thompson's L. /., vol. i.,
p. 365). Also Mamawichtouw (Col. Hist. N. Y.,
vol. i., p. 60). The word Momoweta = mohmo-
wetuo, "he gathereth or brings together in his
house." The components are momo ( = Massa-
chusetts mohmo), "to gather or bring together";
-weta ( = Massachusetts wetu] , ' ' house. ' '
210. MONABAUGS: a swamp, pond, and creek
between Potunk and Ketchaponack Necks in west-
ern Southampton town, at West Hampton. Re-
corded in 1683, viz.: "Bounded east by the creek
comonly called Monobaugs," 1686: "to another
white oak tree standing by the west side of the
140 Indian Place-Names
swamp of Monabaugs, about twenty pole above
yt. head of the pond called Monabaugs" (S. H. R.,
vol. ii., pp. 114, 276). From the possessive ter-
mination, "the swamp of Monabaugs," this name
appears like a personal one although, in this case,
the Indian may have taken his name from the
pond. The word is the equivalent of the Massa-
chusetts (Eliot) monoi, "deep"; -baug, often
occurring as a variation of -paug, "a water place, "
"a pond," thus making the meaning "a deep
211. MONCORUM: Coram, Brookhaven town.
This early form of Coram is found in an order to
Richard Woodhull, concerning a new way on
Long Island (this is the present old Middle
Country road), dated August 1677, viz. : "That a
new way designed and ordered in Gov. Nicoll's
time through the middle of the Island from
Huntington Eastward to Southampton and South-
hold bee nott only remarked, but sufficiently
cleared of brush where occasion by emplo}dng
Indyans or others: . . . and that hee settle a
farme at or about Moncorum" (Col. Hist.,
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 729). See Coram.
212. MONOCKNONG: a name of Staten Island,
Richmond Co., N. Y. "Staten Island, we are
informed by De Vries, was occupied by the
Monatans who called it Monocknong with a verbal
On Long' Island 141
prefix. The termination is ong, denoting locality ;
manon is the iron-wood tree, ack denotes a tree
or trunk, and admits a prefix from manadun,
'bad.' By inquiry it does not appear that the
iron- wood, although present, ever existed in
sufficient abundance to render the name from
that characteristic. The other is too late to
investigate. It is believed the expression had
an implied meaning, and denotes the Haunted
Woods" (Schoolcraft). This theory cannot be
correct. Mr. Schoolcraft has analyzed the word
on a wrong basis, and finished by saying it denotes
the "Haunted Woods." This is not descriptive,
from an Indian's standpoint, as is proven by other
names in this work being simply descriptive and
not romantic. See Aquehonga Manacknong.
213. MONTAUK : point of land and peninsula on
the eastern end of the island in East Hampton
town, the locality from which the principal island
tribe derived their name. In the Indian deed to
Gov. Eaton of New Haven and his associates in
behalf of the inhabitants of East Hampton town,
we find it given: "All land lying from bounds of
Southampton unto the east side of Napeak, next
unto Meuntacut high land" (E. H. R., vol. i.,
p. 3; S. H. R., vol. i., p. 51). In the published
records of this town and sister towns on Long
Island the variations in spelling are almost as
numerous as the occurrence of the name; among
142 Indian Place-Names
them are: Meantaucutt, 1656; Meantaquit, 1660;
Meantauket, 1666; Meantucket, 1668; Menataukett,
1672; Meantaukut, 1674; Meuntaukut, 1676; Mean-
tank, 1687; Mantack, 1692, etc. The signification
has been variously given, all without a doubt being
in error. Jones's Indian Bulletin for 1867 derives
it from the Massachusetts (Eliot) muttaag, "a
standard, pillar, or ensign." Dr. J. H. Trumbull,
the eminent Algonkian student, suggests that the
word is probably a form of manatuck, a name
frequently bestowed on high or hilly land through-
out New England, and denotes "a place of obser-
vation, " " a place for seeing (or to be seen) far off, "
and not, as he once believed, from manati,
"island. " Dr. Trumbull quotes the deed of 1648
from Thompson's L. I. where it is misspelled as
Mountacutt. The late David Gardiner, in Chroni-
cles of East Hampton, 1840, 1871 (also Ayres's
Legends of Montauk}, gives it as "the hilly land
or country " from having been called in early
records the " Meuntacut high land." The writer
suggested (E. H. R., vol. iv., Introduction) another
derivation, one that has both tradition and
history to support it, beside the parallels from
neighboring dialects that prove its correctness.
On the Montauk high lands were located the
palisadoed inclosures of the tribe their places
of refuge in time of danger and peril. The first
fort of which we have any knowledge is mentioned
in the Montauk deed of 1662, the bounds of
On Long' Island 143
which went west to "where the old Indian fort
stood," at Nominick Hills on the "east side of
N apeak." The new fort, "still standing" in
1662, was located on what is still called "Fort
Hill," at Fort Pond, overlooking the bay. The
outlines of this fence inclosure (180 feet square)
can still be traced after a lapse of over two cen-
turies. Meantaukut or Meuntaukut is therefore the
parallel of the Massachusetts (Cotton) Menehke-
tduunat, "fortified"; Meneutausue (Eliot) = " forti-
fied" (as in Isaiah xxvi., 10, pum-meneutausue
keitotan = "defenced city," literally, "the shut
or closed fortified great town"); Delaware men-
achk, a "fort"; menachkasu, "fortified." The
Dutch form, Mirrachtauhacky = Delaware, Me'n-
achk-hacky, "fort country." The English form,
Meuntaukut = Massachusetts Meneutauqut, "at
the fort," "fort country," etc. This makes the
quotation from the deed of 1648 read: "Unto
the fort-place high land." Wood's N. E.
Prospect, 1634, p. 2, ch. 13, says: "Thefe
Forts fome be fortie or fiftie foote fquare,
erected of young timber trees, ten or twelve
foote high, rammed into the ground, with un-
dermining within, the earth being caft up for
their fhelter againft the dischargements of their
enemies: having loope holes," etc. See Brook-
lyn Eagle Almanac, 1896, pp. 54-55. Also Algon-
quian Series, vol. ii., 15-21, for further account of
144 Indian Place-Names
214. MORICHES: a neck of land in the eastern
part of Brookhaven town, from which the three
villages, known as East, Centre, and Moriches
proper take their name. The earliest record
referring to this locality is the deed of April 4,
1683, from John Mayhew, so-called Indian pro-
prietor of several necks of land "upon ye south-
side of Long Island, to Doctor Henry Taylor
and Thomas Willett of Flushing, viz.: a certain
neck of land at Unquichoge commonly known by
ye name of the Merquices lying and joining on the
west side of the neck of land by me given to Thos.
Townsend of Oyster Bay ... ye said neck of
land called the Merquices." On Sept. 25, 1693,
we find that Aug. Graham surveyed: "Two
necks of land called by ye name of Marigies and
Mamanock" (Law Papers, vol. ii., p. 217, Office
of Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). A deed 1691
to Col. Smith has: "Except the bottom of two
necks laid out by markt trees being Meritces and
Mamanok Necks lying together, and not going
further than the head of the creek which make
said necks," and Fletcher's Patent to Smith,
1697: "excepting so much of the marshe and
necks of land of Maritches, and Mamanuck"
(B. H. R., vol. i., p. 90). Some variations are:
Merquices, 1683; Meritces, 1691; Marigies, 1693;
Maritches, 1697; Moritches, 1714; Murichis, 1728;
Meriches, 1740, etc. This neck of land was so-
called because it was Meritches, one time its
On Long' Island 145
Indian owner, or dweller upon it. This name
appears among the grantors, in the Indian deed
for beach in 1685 (B. H. R., vol. i., pp. 69, 70), as
Wene-merit[c]heiv, = u old woman Meritchew" or
" Meritche 1 s old woman"; Wene = weenai, or iveany
(Montauk) wenise (Narragansett) , "an old wo-
man." The meaning of Meritche has not been
ascertained. Similar compounding of personal
names is found in old records. Aquaback whome
squa=Ucque-baug-~homes-squaw, "the head of
the bay old man's woman" (S. H. R., vol. i., p.
60); Weany sunk squaw, "old woman queen"
(S. H. R., vol. i.)
215. MOSQUETAH: Glen Cove, Oyster Bay
town. This name appears modernly as "Mos-
quito Cove," and has the appearance of being
derived from that irrepressible insect, but it was
not. It takes its name from the extensive mead-
ows bordering the cove or creek. Variations
are: Mosquetah, 1658; Musceata, 1667; Muskitoe,
1668; Muchito, 1675. Mosquetah corresponds to
Narragansett muskkosqut, "meadow"; Mohegan
muxquataug, "place of rushes." The same name
appears in Westerly, R. I., as Mukquata, or
Muxquataug (Trumbull's Indian Names in Con-
necticut}. See Muskyttehool.
216. MUNCHOG, Munchoage: an island in the
Great Pond, Montauk. It is mentioned in the
146 Indian Place-Names
East Hampton accounts for the year 1690 when
"Benj. Osborn, Nath. Talmage and John Miller,
Jr. were paid five shillings each for going to
Montauk to search Munchog or Munchoage."
The locality is designated by an entry of Aug.
30, 1709: "when the Trustees ordered that
notice be given for the sale of liberty to mow
what mowable grass may be found within the
Indian field provided they the buyers cut no
other than where the rushes grow and also what
if any may be found mowable on the Island in
the Great Pond called Munchoag." Same date:
"Ichabod Leeke is debtor by liberty of mowing in
the Indian field and on Manchoage as by bargain ";
(E. H. R., vol. ii., p. 248; vol. iii., pp. 216, 219).
Munchog seems to designate "an island of
meadow," "island of rushes" (from munni,
"island"; Narragansett muskechoge, "rushes,"
"place of rushes"). This derivation seems to be
proven by the above records, and in fact a large
part of its area is covered by rushes and marsh.
In Gardiner's Montauk Vocabulary, we find
Cum cheesk, an error for Mun cheesk, " little is-
land "; mun or mon, "an island" ; chiank, "large. "
From this, Mun-chiank, "large island," being the
larger of the two islands in the Great Pond.
217. MUNNAWTAWKIT: Fisher's Island. Al-
though nearer Connecticut than to Long Island, it
belongs to New York State and to Southold town.
On Long Island 147
"This Island is named by Roger Williams, 1637, as
one to which the Pequots came to fish and to plant
corn" (Fourth Series, Mass. Hist. Coll., vol. xxvii.,
pp. 189, 190). " M unnawtawkit seems to be the
equivalent of Montaukit (Montauk) and of Mana-
tuck, with the locative suffix; and the name may
have been given to Fisher's Island from its high
western bluff or its yet higher central hill" (Trum-
bull's Indian Names in Connecticut). I cannot
accept this meaning given by Mr. Trumbull, and
would suggest as more likely its derivation from
another study of his, viz. : " Narragansett Munna-
whatteaug, "white fish, bony fish" [fertilizers,
monoquoteaug (Eliot), 'they manure or enrich
the earth'], now corrupted to Menhaden (Alosa
menhaden, Mitch.). The Indian name was also
given to the herring (Clupea elongata) and to the
alewife both of which species were used for manur-
ing" (TrumbuH's Notes on Roger Williams' 's Key).
Munnawtawkit would then be composed of mun-
nawt, "menhaden" (to fertilize); -awkit, "land or
country," "at the fertilized land," or "at the
menhaden country." This especially, as Williams
says:' "The Pequots went there to fish and to
make new fields of corn. " See Manittuwond.
218. MUSKYTTEHOOL : a locality at Flatlands,
King's Co. (Munsell's Hist. King's Co., p. 71).
This is not " Musquito hole," as some suppose, but
" Musquetaug hole," i. e., "a pool of water where
148 Indian Place-Names
rushes grow," the first part of the name being
Musquetaug, "place of rushes." See Mosquetah,
219. MUSQUATAX: a creek on Mastic Neck,
town of Brookhaven, so named in the Indian
deed from Macarak, alias Humphrey, of Unke-
chogue, for |- of Mastic Neck, to Andrew Gibb,
dated April I, 1690, viz. : "Bounded west by Mus-
quatax Creek, and Minaussums (Winnacroscombs)
Neck to the westward ; east by Sunkapogue Creek
and to Waspeunk or Squorums Neck: north by a
straight line drawn from ye head of the swamp of
Sunkapogue Creek, to the head oc swamp of
Musquatax Creek; and south by the unplowable
meadow and South Bay" (Red Book of Deeds,
p. 341, Town Clerk's Office, Southampton, L. I.
Copy by Wm. S. Pelletreau, Esq.). This is a
common name and denotes "a place where rushes
grow." (See other names in this deed.) See
220. NABIACHAGE : mentioned in will of Thomas
Mapes, August, 1680, land in " Nabiachage or
Matituck" (Liber A, p. I, of Deeds in Office of
County Clerk at Riverhead, L. L). Nabiachage
represents chabia-achu-auke, ' ' place of the divided
or separated hills." This is a very appropriate
name for the locality, Mattituck Creek, passing as
it does between high hills on either side (Craven's
On Long Island 149
History of Mattituck, p. 20). This is the only
reference to this name we have been able to dis-
cover. The components of the word are chabia
(Massachusetts chippi), "separated," "divided";
adchu, "hill;" -auke, "place."
221. NACHAQUATUCK: a river or creek at Cold
Spring, L. I. The western boundary of Hunting-
ton as given in the Indian deed of 1663, viz.:
"Raseokan Sagamore of Matinnicoke do sell to
Richard Holbrook and others certain quantity
of land bounded on the west side with a river
commonly called by the Indians Nachaquetack"
(H. R., vol. i.,p. i). Variations are Naccaquetack,
Nackaquatok, Nackaquatack, Nachquatuck, 1666.
This name Nachaquatuck represents wa-nachaqua-
tuck, wanachaquatuck, "the ending tidal stream,"
so-called because it was the western boundary of
Huntington. The components of the word are:
wanachqua, "at the end of" ; -tuck, "tidal stream."
222. NAGHTOGNK: Corlear's Hook, Manhattan
Island. This form of the name as given by
Schoolcraft. Nechtauk (or Nechtank), Dutch nota-
tion, in some respects seems to be the equivalent
of Naugatuck in Connecticut, which derives its
name from a remarkable single tree, that probably
served as a land mark, Naukot-tungk (Massachu-
setts nequttugk), "one tree" (Trumbull). See
150 Indian Place-Names
223. NAHICANS: tribe of Indians occupying
what is now called Montauk Point ; and the eastern
part of Long Island, as given on a Dutch map of
1616 (CoL Hist. N. F., vol. i.). It signifies the
"people of the point." It might have been ap-
plied to Long Island by mistake for Narragansett,
this being the anglicized name of the country of
the Nahiganeuk (Nanhigganeuck) , the " Nahicans"
of the early Dutch explorers (Trumbull). James
Mooney (Handb. of Am. Inds. N. of Mex., vol. i.,
1907, p. 28) says: "Narraganset 'people of the
small point,' from naiagans, diminutive of naiag,
'small point of land,' with locative ending, -et"
224. NAMEOKE : a locality near Rockaway vil-
lage, Hempstead town, said to be a corruption
of a word meaning "to the water's edge" (Out
on Long Island, p. 13, 1889). This is wrong; it
means a "fishing place, " or "where fish are taken,"
being the same as the Indian name of New
London, Conn. : Nameaug (Name-auke) , from name,
225. NAMKEE: a brook or creek at the western
bounds of Brookhaven town, near Blue Point,
called also in the early records Manowtassquot.
Found on record in the Indian deed of 1666, viz. :
' ' Tobaccus gives a tract of land upon the south
side of Long Island, meadow and upland, bounded
on the west by a river called Namke" (B. H. R.,
On Long Island 151
vol. i.). Variants are Nanmicuke, 1668 ; Namcuke,
1670; Namko, 1735. Maps of the Island give
it as Namkee and Namkey. "Namcook or Wama-
coke Neck in North and South Kingston, Rhode
Island, said to signify a bank in Indian" (Par-
sons). It is the same as Namkeag, the Indian
name of Salem, Mass., and Nam'-e-auke or
Nameock, New London, Conn., denoting a "fishing
place," or "where fish are taken, or caught."
The name probably belonged to the mouth of the
creek and not to the whole creek, where the
Indians had a "fishing- weir," or where they set
their nets, as described by Roger Williams. See
226. NANEMOSET: the name of a brook or
creek of uncertain location. De Kay places it
in Southampton. "In 1663, the inhabitants of
Setauket entered into an agreement with Capt.
John Scott, to become copartners in a tract of
land bounded easterly with Nanemoset Brook,
westerly with the Nessaquaque east line, runing
south to the middle of the Island" (Thompson's
L. I., vol. ii., p. 321). I once believed this to be a
personal name similar to Samoset, but as Scott
conveyed land bounded by "Quaconsit" River
(Wading River), this is probably another name for
that stream or its tributaries, where the Indians
fished, and is a variation of the same name men-
tioned in the Indian deed of Brookhaven, 1655,
152 Indian Place-Names
Namoss-es-et, "at or about the fish-place."
Eliot has Mishe ketahhane namossit, "as the fish
of the great sea" (Ezekiel xlvii., 10). The com-
ponents of the word are: namos, "fish"; -es-et, "at
227. NAOSH: a name applied to Sandy Hook,
N. Y. Harbor, by Henry R. Schoolcraft. It was
taken from the Chippewa, signifying "a point
surpassing others" (Gowans's Biblioiheca Ameri-
cana). Baraga gives the Chippewa neidshi, "a
point of land, projecting in the lake." See
228. NAPOCK: a locality mentioned as one
of the boundaries of Brookhaven, in the Indian
deed of 1655, y i z - : "Warawakmy Sachem of
Setaucet sells a peice of land, etc., adjoining to
the bounds of Nesaquagg and from thence, being
bounded with a river or great napock, nerly
nemaukak, eastward" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. i).
I am inclined to think the locality is the long
series of ponds that form the head waters of
Peconic River on the bounds between Riverhead
and Brookhaven towns. Its signification is "a
water-place," from neap, " water "; -auke, "land"
or "place." Nipock, "pool place," is a corre-
sponding Narragansett term. See Nippaug.
229. NAQUEETATOGUE : "In 1691, Wamcos
On Long' Island 153
Sagamore sells the upland of a neck of land lying
on the southside of the Island called Naqueeta-
togue" (Munsell's Hist. S. C., Babylon town).
This word is an error for Naguntitogue.
230. NARRASKETUCK. See Warrasketuck.
231. NARRIOCH: Gravesend Neck, King's Co.
The neck terminates in a point. It is cited in the
Indian release of 1654, v i z - : "said land called
Narrioch (the Island) and Mannahanning (the
Neck)" (Thompson's L. I., vol. ii.). Under
Mannahanning Thompson's error is discussed.
The name means a "point of land"; Massachu-
setts naiag, "point," "corner"; -auke, "land."
See Nahicans, Nayack, and Noyack.
232. NASHAYONSUCK : one of the names of
Hashamonuk, Southold town. It belonged really
to a brook forming one of the boundaries of the
neck. It is mentioned in the certificate of
William Salmon, dated 1645, recorded in 1750, viz. :
"A parcel of land comonly called Hashammomock
and Nashayonsuck, and right over to the North-
sea from Nassayonsuck to Monnepaught." Again
in 1649: "Wm. Salmon of Hashamamuck, alias
Neshugguncer (S. R., vol. i., p. 176; vol. ii., p. 276).
It corresponds to the Massachusetts Nashaue-suck,
"the fork of the brook or outlet," or "place be-
tween (the forks of the) brook." See Nachaqua-
154 Indian Place-Names
233. NASSAKEAG: on the south west border of
Setauket, Brookhaven town, lies the locality called
by the Indian name of Nassakeag or by the modern
one of South Setauket. It was originally applied
to a swamp at that locality, viz.: "lying near
Nesakaks swamp running westerly to Nasakakes
swamp," 1697; Nasakeges swamp, 1697; Naskea-
gue, 1743 (B. H. R., vol. i., pp. 63, 66, 156).
Nassakeag was Sachem of the Nissequogues; his
name is on the quit claim to Richard Smith in
1664. Another, or possibly the same, is on the
Indian deed of Setauket or the "North purchase"
of 1675 (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 45). The swamp
derives its name from being his residence or he
may have taken the name from the swamp.
The word is possibly the parallel of the Chippewa
(Baraga) nawashkig, "in the middle of a swamp";
(nawaii, "middle"; mashkig, "swamp ").
234. NASSECONSET: Sachem of the Nissequo-
gues in 1650. Variations are: Nasseconsack, 1650;
Nesconsake, 1663; Nassesconset, 1664; Nesatas-
consett, 1665. Nesconset, Post Office in Smith-
town, so adopted in 1908. It is located midway
between Smithtown and Lake Ronkonkoma.
The Sachem probably takes his name from his
dwelling place, as it is a land name. " Nasses-
conset's land, on the east side of Nessequag River"
(B. H. R., vol. i., p. 9). Nasseconset corresponds
to the Massachusetts Nesse-keon-es-et, "at or
On Long Island 155
near the second going over" (by wading or other-
wise). The word contains neese, "two," and the
locative -es-et, "at or near."
235. NAYACK: a point of land in the town of
New Utrecht, King's Co. It appears in the
early records of New Netherland, February 14,
1652, viz. : " Manhattans Indians of New Nether-
land, living at Nayack, a place on Long Island
directly opposite Staten Island." An Indian
deed of Dec. I, 1652: "For land lying eastward
of the North River at the heads the Indians
shall receive six coats, six kettles, six axes, six
hatchets, six small looking glasses, twelve knives
and twelve cans on condition, that they the In-
dians, and their descendants remove immediately
from the land now occupied by them called Naieck
and never return to live in the limits of the dis-
trict again" (Col. Hist. N. K, vol. xiv., p. 160,
190). Variations are Nayack-Po'mt, 1666; Najeck,
1656; Najack, 1662. This is the point on which
Fort Hamilton is situated. The name denotes
a "point or corner of land. " See Noyack.
236. NAYANTACAWNICK : an island, proposed
by Roger Williams as a suitable place of residence
for the captive Pequots in 1637 (Fourth Series
Mass. H. C., vi., p. 201). This Narragansett word
is for Nayanticacawmuck, "over against Niantic"
or "over against the point of land on the tidal-
156 Indian Place-Names
river" (Fisher's Island or Plum Island?), accord-
ing to Trumbull's Indian Names in Connecticut.
237. NEAPEAGUE: the long sandy and marshy
beach that connects the peninsula of Montauk
with the main part of the Island, East Hampton
town, a dreary waste of sand, water, and mosqui-
toes. It is first entered on record in 1658, when:
"Wyandanch gives to Rev. Thos. James half of
all the whales or other great fish that shall be cast
on the beach from Napeake eastward to the end of
the Island" (E. H. R., vol. i., p 150). Variations
are: Napeage, 1675; Napeag, 1700; Napeague,
(U. S. Coast Survey); modernly Neapeague,
Nap-pe'ag, etc. It signifies the "water land";
in the Montauk dialect Niepeage, from niep
(Massachusetts nip or nippe} "water"; -eage
(Massachusetts -auke) , "land."
238. NECKAPAUGE: creek in the town of Islip.
This name appears on an old map of the Nicoll
patent, where the creek west of Sayville (now
Green's Creek), being the eastern bound of this
patent, is called Neckapauge, because the begin-
ning boundary of the Nicoll patent. Neckapauge
corresponds to Massachusetts Nequt-pe-auke, "one
(or the first) water-place," from nequt, "one
(or at the beginning)"; -pe, "wattr"; -auke,
"land, "or "place."
On Long Island 157
239. NECOCHAWODT: "Uncertain location in
Hempstead, Queen's Co." (De Kay). This is a
mistake, for it is not a place but a personal name,
although it may have been applied to some local-
ity at some period (this I have not been able to
verify). Mecohgawodt was the Sachem of the
Massapeags in 1639. He conveyed all his terri-
tory from the Rockaways to the country of the
Secatogues to the Dutch. The name occurs also
as Mechowodt. See Marossepinck.
240. NECOMMACK: see Noccomack.
241. NEGUNTATOGUE : a neck of land south
of the settlement of Breslau between "Little
Neck" and " Santapogue, " Babylon town; one
of the five necks of meadow land bought from
the Indians in 1657. On March 2, 1663, John
Sticklin, widower, of the town of Crafford, alias
Jemeco, sells to Gabriel Finch "a lott of meddow
upon the neck called Neguntetake." In 1666
Finch sells the same: "lying upon the neck
called Nagunttatauge" (H. R., vol. i., pp. 55, 82).
Variations are: Neguntataug, 1669; Nagunttatoug,
1669; Naguntatogue, 1684. This name signifies
"abandoned," or, "forsaken land. " The first part
naguntta is the parallel of the Delaware rigattasu,
"abandoned" (rigattummen "to leave behind");
Abnaki, negati, "to abandon," "to quit"; Chip-
pewa, nin nagadam, "I abandon it"; Cree, ni
158 Indian Place-Names
natataw, "I abandon it." The same radical is
found in the Narragansettaquegunnitteash, "fields
worn out." No doubt upon this neck were lo-
cated fields formerly planted by the Indians, which
were abandoned for better land, perhaps for the
neck lying to the eastward called Anuskkummikak,
"land we hoe or break up."
242. NEMAUKAK: a locality mentioned in the
Indian deed of Brookhaven dated 1655, viz.:
"being bounded with a river or great Napock,
nerly nemaukak eastward" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. i).
The exact locality is now unknown. The name
is probably namo-auk-ut, "at the fishing-place."
Related is Nemasket, "fish place" in Boston Har-
bor, Mass. See Nanemoset.
243. NESAQUAQUE ACCOMPSETT: a locality
mentioned in an order issued by Gov. Nicolls,
concerning the Smithtown boundary in 1670, viz.:
"Declaring and offering to prove that ye Nesa-
quake lands lay on both sydes of ye Ryver, and
that parte lyeing on ye west syde comonly
called Nesaquaque Accompsett did extend as
farre as ye fresh pond westward" (H. R., vol. i.,
p. 170). This name can be resolved into Nesaqu-
auke Accomp-es-et, "at the place over against the
land on the forks of the river," "land on the
other side of Nissequogue. ' ' The components are
nesaqu-, "fork" ( = Delaware lechauwaak) ; -auke,
On Long Island 159
"land"; accomp- ( = Massachusetts ogkome; Chip-
pewa agami), "on the other side," "over against
as a whole"; -es-et, "at the place," "in the neigh-
borhood of. ' '
244. NESCONSET: a post-office in Smithtown.
245. NESHUGGUNCER : a corrupted form of
Nashayonsuck (q. v.). Compare also Neshun-
ganset Brook in Rhode Island, near the Connecti-
246. NIAMU:K: Canoe Place, Southampton
town. Being the narrow isthmus that separates
the two bays of Shinnecock and Peconic, now
connected by Shinnecock canal. First found on
record in 1662, viz.: "Part of the Shinnecock
Indians have made over all their land from Nia-
mack over to the old gutt westward unto Capt.
Topping" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 27). Again,
"lying from a place called Niamuck or ye Canoe
Place" (Indian Deed, 1666). Variants are Nia-
mug, 1667; Niamocke, 1667. The meaning of the
name is "between the fishing-places," from ni,
"between," "midway"; -amaug, " a fishing-place "
(Trumbull) . Both bays to-day are favorite resorts
of the fishermen.
247. NIPPAUG: name suggested by Mr. George
R. Ho well, in his History of Southampton
160 Indian Place-Names
(2ded. f 1888), for "Little Fresh Pond," between
Southampton village and North Sea; said to
signify a "small body of fresh water." But,
according to Trumbull and other authorities,
this name signifies "water-land" (from nippe,
"water"; -auke, "land," "place"). Nappeag is
another form of the same word. See Napock.
248. NIPSCOP: a tract of land in the western
part of Islip town, partly in Babylon, now the
farm of Austin Corbin, Esq. "John Reeve,
Sheriff of Suffolk Co., will sell at Public Auction,
all the right and title of John Whitman, of and to,
a certain farm situated in part of the town of
Huntington known by the name of Conkling's
Farm or Nipscop" (Suffolk Gazette, Sag Harbor,
April 22, 1809). Inquiry fails to reveal anything
in regard to this place, except that this has been the
traditional name of the locality beyond the memory
of any living person.
249. NISINCKQUEGHACKY : a locality mentioned
in De Kay's Indian Names, as being a village of
the Matinnecocks at Smithtown. We find it
referred to in 1645 as " Nisinckqueghacky at which
the Mattinekonck now reside." It is a Dutch
notation for Nissequogue or Nashoqu-auke. See
250. NISSEQUOGUE: a river and hamlet in the
town of Smithtown. Formerly applied to a tribe
On Long Island 161
of Indians and to the land on which they lived at
the eastward of the river. Dutch Records of
1645: " Nisinckqueghacky being a place where the
Matinnecocks now reside," showing that the Nesa-
quogues were a branch of that tribe who had
left their early home. The Indian deed of 1650:
"Articles of Agreement between Nasseconseke,
Sachem of Nesequake beginning at i River
called and known by the name of Nesaquake
River," etc. Again in 1664: "When Nassecon-
set sould on the east side of the river unto Jonas
Wood and others did resirve half the sayd
neck called and known by the name of Nesequage
Neck, to himself and Indians to live and to plant
upon" (S. H. R., vol. i.). The late Hon. J. Law-
rence Smith in his notes on Smithtown (Mun-
sell's S. C.) has: "The tribe and river derived
their name from Nesaquake, an Indian Sagamore,
the father of Nasseconset." This derivation of
the name is certainly wrong, for it is a place-name
not a personal one, although if he was so-called,
he may have taken it from the place where he
lived, as was frequently the case. I have been
unable to find any Indian of that name. The
variations are: Nesequagg, 1655; Neesaquock, 1665;
Nesaquake, 1666; Nasaquack, 1666; Neesoquauk,
1663; Nesquauk, 1665; Nesoquack, 1671; Nassa-
quake, 1675; modernly Nissequogue. The main
theme of the name seems to be a derivative corre-
sponding to the Massachusetts pissaqua, "mire,"
162 Indian Place-Names
"clay," "mud," etc. ; Delaware, assisquo, "clay,"
"mud," etc. The terminal -hacky, -ack, -ake, de-
notes "land" or "country. " When the word was
spoken by the Indians there was evidently a nasal
sound preceding the vowel, or an exchange of p for
n, hence we have the name N'issaqu-ack = nissa-
quack, "the clay or mud country, " in the English
notation, or n ' isinckqueghacky in the Dutch nota-
tion, which may have referred to its clay deposits,
frequented by the Indians for obtaining a desirable
quality of clay for making their pottery vessels,
or to the meadows hereabouts.
251. NOBBS: the creek now known as "Goose
Creek" near Flanders, Southampton town, flow-
ing into the Great Peconic Bay. So-called in the
testimony of Paucamp taken down in 1660, who
mentioned five creeks: "the second Nobbs."
Nobbs is possibly an abbreviation of a longer
name; and perhaps the same as the Micmac
p'nopsques, "white-fish," "bony-fish," also called
by the Narragansetts munnawhattea-flg, "fer-
tilizers," because used by both the Indians and
whites for manuring their land. They are still
so used in this section when obtainable. See
252. NOCCOMACK: meadows and land on the
west side of Mastic Neck, Brookhaven town.
The release by Wm. Smith, June I, 1734, has:
On Long Island 163
"Confirmed to the inhabitants the meadows on
the west side of Mastic called Nacomak" (B. H. R.,
vol. i.,p. 133). Variations are: Nacommock, 1734;
Necommack, 1753; Noccomack, 1880. In Wm.
Smith's quit-claim, 1753, it is referred to as
"meadow, marsh, or morish ground between
the said river and upland" (B. H. R., vol. i., p.
170). Noccomack = Na-komuk signifies "midway
place" or "place between," i. e., the upland and
bay as referred to in the above record. The
components of the word are na ( = Massachusetts
noe) "in the middle"; -komuk, "place."
253. NOMINICK : hills on Montauk, East Hamp-
ton town. These hills rise out of the sandy waste
of Neapeague, forming the bold, rugged outline
of the western extremity of Montauk.
Cheerless Neapeague ! now bounds the heart to gain
The hills that spring beyond thy weary plain.
Legends of Montauk (1849).
Variations are: Nummonok, Naumunack, Nom-
monock, Nominick, Nomnick. The name is tradi-
tional and does not appear in the early records
of the town. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for
1888, 1 gave it as meaning "high dry land" and in
the issue for 1889 as "land or place lifted high,"
deriving it from a word corresponding to the
Delaware aspenumen, Massachusetts, uspunnu-
mun, "elevated," "lifted high." I am now
164 Indian Place-Names
satisfied as to the error of this, and that the name
is the equivalent of the Massachusetts nunnum,
"to see" (naumunat, "to be seen"), Delaware,
nemeneep, ' ' I have seen. ' ' Thus we have naumun-
auke, "land to be seen (afar off)."
254. NONOWANTUCK: said to be the Indian
name of Mount Sinai, Brookhaven town. It be-
longed originally to a creek and not to the land.
I have been unable to find any early forms, the
name as far as I can learn is traditional. The
locality at a very early date was known as the
"Old Man's" from an old Indian resident. An
old decrepit Indian was designated as an "old
Homes 11 (see Smithtown Certificate, 1663; Mun-
sell's S. C.; Massetewse's Deed, 1664; B. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 12). The first part nonowan is the same
as the Narragansett (R. Williams) nunnowa,
"harvest time," literally "it is dry." With the
affix -tuck, "a creek," we have nunnowa-tuck,
"a creek that dries up," "a dry creek." Into
the west side of the harbor a small stream once
found its way from the plains of the interior.
This was called the "Crystal Brook," and the
valley left by it is still known by that name
(Bayles's Notes on Mount Sinai; Munsell's Hist.
255. NOSH: a lot of land at Southampton,
L. I. Under a record of 1693, we find: "a lot
On Lon Island 165
in the ox pasture going under the name of a
nosh lot by reason of the woody ness of it"
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 129). The word may not
be Indian, but is probably a variant of bosk, "a
thicket" or "small forest (bosky, woody, or
bushy) covered with boscage or thicket." The
origin would thus be from the Dutch bosch, "a
256. NOWEDONAH: name of the Shinnecock
Sachem in 1648. Now bestowed upon the "Mill
Pond" at Water Mill, Southampton town. This
will perpetuate the name of one who probably
paddled in its waters and fished in the depths of
Lake Nowedonah. He is said to have been the
youngest of the four brothers who were the Sa-
chems of the four eastern Long Island tribes; and
he was the same Sachem previously known as
Wittaneymen. Some histories give the name as
Nowedinah. The name Nowedonah corresponds
to the Delaware natonawoh, "I seek him,"
(n'dona, "seek"; nemauwi n'donamen, "I '11 go
and seek it"). In fact the word signifies "the
seeker." He probably received this name in
1645, when he went "to find" or "to seek out"
the enemies of the Dutch. See Mochgonne-
257. NOYACK: a hamlet in the township of
Southampton, on Noyack Bay about four miles
166 Indian Place-Names
from Sag Harbor. In 1668: "At a meeting of
the nebours of the North Sea have granted to Mr.
John Jennings that he shall (have) liberty to
fence in a peice of the North side of Noyack river,"
etc. (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 241). In 1686: "that
Mr. Obadiah Rogers shall have the stream at
Noyak to set a fulling mill upon" (S. H. R., vol. ii.,
p. 206). Variants are Noyack, 1686; Noiack, 1712.
Modernly the word is spelt Noyac or Noyack. The
name signifies ' ' a point or corner of land." Noyack
corresponds to the Massachusetts Naiag, "point"
or "corner." Trumbull (Notes to the Narr.
Club ed. of R. Williams's Key} remarks: "I may
be permitted to suggest that nai, 'having cor-
ners,' and naiag or naiyag (as Eliot writes the
word), 'a corner' or 'angle,' gave the name to many
points of land on the sea-coast and rivers of New
England, e. g., Nayatt Point in Barrington, Mass.,
Nayack in Southampton, L. I.," etc. Noyack no
doubt takes its name from the long point or neck
of land now known as Jessup's Neck, at one time
called " Farrington's Point."
258. OCCAPOGUE: "The name of a stream on
Long Island, N. Y. " (Boyd's Indian Local Names}.
I cannot find any other authority for this name.
It is possibly one of the many variations of Aque-
bogue, Riverhead town. See Aquebogue.
259. OCCOMBAMACK: see Acombamack.
On Long Island 167
260. OKENOK: see Oguenock.
261. OMKALOG: a locality in the town of
Southampton. Mentioned in the "Case" of
the Trustees of the Freeholders and Commonalty
of the town of Southampton against the Mecox
Bay Oyster Company, 1888, p. 431, viz.: "Sept. 2,
1760, Ordered by said Trustees that Josiah Good-
ale for 8 shillings which he promises to pay to the
trustees of this town shall and may have liberty
to use and improve the land which he has already
cleared at Omkolog for the term of this year, but
he, the said Goodale, is to clear no more" (Re-
cords of the Proprietors, p. 119). W. J. Post,
Esq., Town Clerk, informs me by letter that in the
original record it is Aukabog, Omkalog being an
error in transcribing. The land that Goodale
cleared was at Flanders in the immediate vicinity
of what is called " Goose Creek." See Aquebogue.
262. ONCHECHAUG: see Unkechaug.
263. ONUCK: see Wonunke.
264. OOSUNK: a locality on Yaphank Creek,
south of the village of Yaphank, in the town
of Brookhaven. In 1808 the name appears as
Oosence. See Asawsunce.
265. OPCATKONTYCKE: a brook at Northport,
Huntington town. Mentioned in the Indian
168 Indian Place-Names
deed of the first purchase, 1653, viz.: "certain
quantitie of land, lying and being upon Long
Island, bounded upon the west side with a river
commonly called by the Indians Nachaquetack, on
the north side with the sea and going eastward
to a river called Opcatkontycke" (H. R., vol. i.,
pp. I, 2). Another copy: "to a river called
Oxeatcontyck" (Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p. 252,
Office of Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). A note
by Hon. C. R. Street says, "This is the stream
at the head of Northport Harbor." The ter-
minal affix of this name, -tycke is an error for
the inseparable generic -tuk, or -tuck, denoting
"water in motion," "a creek," or "tidal river";
the other component oxeatcon= Massachusetts
tskeon (Eliot), "a ford"; Narragansett, toyuskat,
"at the ford," or "wading-place" (tocekefuck,
"let us wade"). Oxeatcontuck thus signifies "the
wading-place creek." The Indian path or trail,
no doubt, crossed the creek.
266. OPERHOWESECK : a brook in Huntington
town. At a town meeting, June 6, 1687: "It
was voted that Judge Pallmer shall be taken
as a trustee in our patent, only in reference to ye
soill right of that land betwixt Operhoweseck and
fresh pond westward of ye bounds before men-
tioned namely Opechowseck which is a small
brook running into ye mill brooke" ( H. R.,
vol. i., p. 499). Probably this word is for Chop-
On Long Island 169
pachau-suck, "the place of separation brook."
267. OPPEAX: creek on Rockaway Neck,
Queen's Co. On March 20, 1684, " John Hansen
petitions for a patent for a tract of land lying at a
creek called Oppeax" (Cal. of Land Papers, p.
27, Office of the Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.).
268. OQUENOCK: a neck of land in the western
part of Islip town. "Oquenock Neck corrupted
to Oak Neck is said to have been the burial place
of the Indians, and this is believed to be the mean-
ing of the word. Oquenock Brook bounds it on
the east and separates it from Saghtekoos or Apple-
tree Neck" (Munsell's Hist. S. C., Islip). This
tradition is certainly wrong, for it is not an Indian
name, the early form being simply "Oak Neck,"
which, by some strange metamorphosis, has been
corrupted into the seemingly aboriginal one of
Oquenock or Okenok as it appears on some maps.
This is proven by the following: Gov. Fletcher's
license to Stephen Van Courtlandt to purchase
land of the natives in 1692 says: "a neck of land
called by the Indian name of Saghtekoos and by
the Christians Appletree Neck, being bound on
the west -side by Oake Neck Brook to an Indian
foot path" (Munsell's Hist. S. C.). Fletcher's
patent to Thos. and Richard Willets, Oct. 10
170 Indian Place-Names
1695, says: "two certain necks of land and
meadow beginning at a certain pepperidge tree
standing on the bank of Oak Neck creek" (Mun-
sell'sflw/. S. C.).
269. ORAWAC, Orowoc: a brook at Islip,
sometimes called the "Paper Mill Brook." First
recorded in 1692, when Gov. Ingoldsby granted a
patent to Andrew Gibb: "For a certain tract
of vacant land on Long Island commonly called
Wingatt happah Neck bounded on the west by
Orawack River" (Munsell's Hist. S. C., Islip).
Variations are: Orawacke, 1697; Orawack, 1701;
Osawack, 1708. Modernly Orawac, Orowoc, Dra-
wee, and on some maps, Oriwic. This part of
Islip town was the last settled. The land covered
by timber intersected and dotted by numerous
streams and swamps, it naturally remained un-
occupied for a long period after the settlement
of other towns on Long Island. From the great
scarcity of aboriginal relics and evidences of
village sites, it must have been also destitute of
Indian habitations, for history informs us that
the two principal villages of the Indians were
located at Secatogue Neck on the west, and at
Unkechaug Neck in Brookhaven town on the
east, thus leaving the greater part of the present
town of Islip a wilderness, and as such it remains
to-day. The brook takes its name from the land
in the vicinity, being as stated in Gibbs's patent,
On Long' Island 171
"vacant land." Orawack is the parallel of the
Massachusetts (Eliot) touwa-auke, "old vacant,
abandoned land," "wild land"; Delaware tau-
watawik, "an uninhabited tract " (tauwatawique,
"in the wilderness"); Micmac (Rand) taipkwaak,
"wilderness." Eliot uses touohkomuk or touwa-
komuk for a "wild-place," "a wilderness," "a
desert," "a forsaken place," "wood country,"
"forest." Orapakes, Orapaks, or Orohpikes in
Virginia is of the same derivation: Touoh-pe-
auke, "a wild water-place," "wilderness water-
place," probably a swamp. It is frequently
mentioned by Capt. John Smith, who says:
"About 25 miles lower on the North side of this
river [Pamunkee] is Werawocomoco where their
king [Powhatan] inhabited when Captain Smith
was delivered him prisoner; . . . but now he
hath abandoned that, and liveth at Orapakes by
Youghtanund in the wilderness." Again: "But
he took so little pleasure in our neare neighbor-
hood, that were able to visit him against his will
in 6 or 7 hours, that he retired himself to a place in
the deserts at the top of the river Chickahamania
betweene Youghtanund and Powhatan. His habi-
tation there is called Orapakes where he ordinarily
now resideth. " And again: "he retired him-
selfe to Orapakes in the desert betwixt Chicka-
hamania and Youghtanund" (Smith's Works,
Arber's ed., pp. 51, 80, 375). This locality is an
interesting one from the fact of its being the
172 Indian Place-Names
scene of the battles of the Wilderness during the
late rebellion. Grant, in his Memoirs (vol. ii.,
p. 258) says: "The country we were now in was
a difficult one to move troops over. The streams
were numerous, deep, and sluggish, sometimes
spreading out into swamps, grown up with
impenetrable growths of trees and underbrush,
the banks were generally low and marshy making
the streams difficult to approach except where
there were roads and bridges."
270. ORIOCK: on Jan. 22, 1703, Lancaster
Symes, et aL, petition for a license to purchase a
tract of land in the county of Suffolk, at the
mouth of a river called Oriock (Cal. of Land
Papers in Office of Sec'y of State, p. 64). See
271. OSHAMAMUCKS : Fresh Pond on the bound-
ary between Huntington and Smithtown. Re-
corded in 1694: "land on ye west side of ye fresh
pond, commonly known by ye name of Oshama-
mucks" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 160). See Unshema-
272. OUHEYWICHKINGH : an Indian village on
Long Island, taken under the protection of four
principal tribes as stated in a treaty of 1645.
"Ouweehacky, locality unknown on L. I. Sound,"
according to De Kay. Allowing for the variations
On Long Island 173
which the other Indian names in this treaty pre-
sent, and the sound of the word in being spoken,
this village must have been the one located on
Mastic Neck, Brookhaven, and known to the
English as Unkechaug. The termination in Dutch
notation, -wichMngh corresponds to the Delaware
wick-ink, "place of the houses," "a village."
We thus have Unke-wik-ink, "village on the
other side (of a hill)," and Ouwee-hacky,
"country beyond," both forms being variations
of the idea in Unkechaug, "land beyond the hill."
See Mochgonnekonck, Unkechaug.
273. OWENAMCHOCK: "The eastward bounds
of Tobacus' land sold to Setauk" (Memorandum
on file, B. H. R., vol. i., p. 33, 1668-9). Possibly
a variation of Occombamack or Accombamack, as
this was the eastward bounds of the land sold by
Tobacus to Gov. Winthrop in 1666 (B. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 23). The name Owenamchock = Ongk-
nameech-auke, "beyond the fishing place." The
components of the word would be ongk-, "be-
yond"; nameech, "fish"; = auke, "place."
274. PAGGANCK: Governor's Island, N. Y.
Harbor. The Indian deed of June 16, 1637,
says: " Cacapeteyno and Pewihas as owners
acknowledge, that they have transferred, cede
and convey to and for the behoof of Wouter Van
Twiller, Director General of New Netherland,
174 Indian Place-Names
the nut Island, in the Indian tongue called Pag-
ganck, situate opposite the Island of the Mana-
hates (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 14). Also
"Nutten Island," and by the Indians "Pag-
ganch" (French's Gazetteer of N. Y., 1860).
Governor's Island bore the name of "Nut Island"
during the Holland supremacy (nut is in Dutch
nutteri) but whether, as it is suspected, this was a
translation of the Indian Pecanuc, or "nut trees,"
is not certain. My search seems to make it so,
for Pagganck is no doubt the parallel of
the Delaware pachgammak, "black walnut"
(pachganunschi, "white walnut trees "); Chippewa
(Baraga) paganak, "nut," "walnut," "hazel
nut. " The common hickory-nut was called paean,
a general name for all hard-shell nuts, meaning
"that which is cracked with an instrument "-
by a stone, or hammer. Strachey's Virginian
vocabulary has paukauns for "walnuts." At
the west and north this name (as, e. g., pacanes
and modern pekan and pekan-imi) has been ap-
propriated to a single species, the fruit of the
Carya olivceformis (Trumbull's Words derived from
N. A . Indian Languages) .
275. PAHEHETOCK: a locality on the eastern
end of Long Island. Probably the Dutch nota-
tion for Peconic or Pehikkomuk, the small pali-
sadoed village of the Indians at Ucquebauge.
Mentioned in a declaration concerning trade with
On Long Island 175
the Indians on Long Island, when two Dutchmen
testify before the Secretary of New Netherland:
"That it is true and truthful that they have been
in the months of October, November, etc. A
1647, with Govert Loockmans and his bark along
the north coast from New Netherland to Pahehe-
tock, Crommegou and New Haven, during which
voyage they neither saw, nor heard, nor ever
knew that Govert Loockmans himself, or any
of his crew had directly or indirectly traded or
bartered with or to the Indians, there or elsewhere
any powder, lead or guns, except that he, Loock-
mans made a present of about a pound of powder
to the Chief Rochbon in the Crommegou and pur-
chased two geese in the Crommegou and half a
deer at Pahetoc with powder; without having
given to, or exchanged with the Indians anything
else to our knowledge (Col. Hist. N. F., vol. xiv.,
p. 94). Crommegouw was the name given to
Gardiner's Bay by the Dutch and signifies
"crooked coast or district." See Peconic.
276. PAHQUAHKOSSIT : Wading River, River-
head town. So recorded in 1687 (S. R., vol. i.,
p. 344). See Pauquacumsuck.
277. PAMUNKE: see Paumanack.
277 a. PANOTHTICUTT : see Penataquit.
176 Indian Place-Names
278. PANTIGO: a locality between East Hamp-
ton village and Amagansett. Recorded as early
as 1669, when William Edwards gives his daughter
Sarah: "that Lott that Lyeth at pantego."
Again in 1680: "upland lying at the place com-
monly called pantigo" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 320;
vol. ii., p. 89). The early settlers frequently
gave names to localities from some local happen-
ing. Among such names we find ' ' Hard Scrabble,
"Toilsome," "Scuttle Hole," " Whippoorwill, "
etc. Pantigo, supposed to be aboriginal, evidently
belongs to the same class, and is probably the
English "pant-I-go." In this derivation Hon.
Henry P. Hedges, the East Hampton historian,
279. PAPEQUATUNCK : "locality on the south-
east bounds of Oyster Bay town (De Kay).
But according to the following it is on the west
side. Found in the first Indian deed of 1653, viz. :
"All the land lying and situate upon Oyster
Bay, and bounded by Oyster Bay River to the
east side, and Papequtunck on the west side"
(Thompson, vol. i., p. 485). This was a tract
of land cleared by the Indians for their planting
ground. Papequatun, or papequtun corresponds
to the Massachusetts pohquetaham (Eliot), "bro-
ken"; the terminal is -auke, "land." Trumbull
writes the word Pauquettahun-atike, "land
opened," or "broken up," i. e., after it had been
On Long' Island 177
once planted or dug over. Cuttyhunk in Massa-
chusetts is a corruption from the same and we
find also the Pequot Paucatun'nuc (Stiles), 1761.
280. PAQUATUCK: creek on the line between
East and Centre Moriches, Brookhaven town,
now known as Terrell's River. Fletcher's Pa-
tent, 1697, gives: "On the west by a river on the
west side of Mariche's Neck, called Paquatuck."
Variations are Pacotuck, 1697; Poquatuck, 1703.
Modernly Pautuck. The name Paquatuck = pau-
gua-tuck, "a clear (or open) creek," from paqua,
"open," "clear"; -tuck, "tidal river," "creek."
281. PAQUINAPAGOGUE : mentioned in De
Kay's Indian Names of L. /., as being a tract of
land in Smithtown with the query "where?"
De Kay probably obtained it from Thompson
(vol. i., p. 456), who, supposing the Richard
Smith of Rhode Island to be the same Richard
Smith of Smithtown, erroneously quotes a Rhode
Island Indian deed. Parsons (Indian Names of
R. /.) quotes it as Poppaquinnapaug, now Fen-
ner's Pond, near Pawtuxet. The name is
probably Paqwa-quinna-paug, "the shallow long
pond"; from pagwa ( = Massachusetts pongqui),
' ' shallow ' ' ; quinna ( = Massachusetts qunni) ,
"long"; -paug, "pond."
282. PASCU-UCKS: a creek in the town of
Babylon. Indian deed of 1689 from island in the
178 Indian Place-Names
Great South Bay: "bounded on the east by a
certaine creek which is called by us Pascu-ucks,
all the meadow lying westward of Pascu-ucks of
the said Island Screcunkas" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 48).
This name probably pachau-auke, "turning place,"
or "where they divide" (the "dividing-place" of
the said Island), from pdchau ( = Massachusetts
poksheau), "it divides itself"; -auke, "land,"
"place." See Patchogue.
283. PASSASQUEUNG : a creek in South Oyster
Bay, Queen's Co. It is probably the same river
or creek called Arrasquaug, and mentioned as
being the western boundary of the town in Andros
Patent of 1677, and now called "Hindi's Creek."
In a remonstrance by the inhabitants of Oyster
Bay to the people of Huntington in 1663, we find:
"Then we do by this request you to forbear mow-
ing our meadow which being at the river Passas-
queung" (Munsell's Hist. Queen's Co.}. In the
Brooklyn Eagle Almanac for 1890, I gave the
signification as "land that rises or stands up,"
the chief component corresponding to the Dela-
ware pachsucquin; Narragansett pastickquish,
"to rise." On inquiry, I find that the land in
this section is mostly level and that this could
not be a descriptive term for that locality, the
same being mostly meadow land. It is no doubt
the equivalent of the Massachusetts (Eliot) pis-
seaquane, "mire"; pissaquanit, "in the mire"
On L,on Island 179
(Job viii., ii ; Ps. xl., 2), with the suffix -ung or
-aug, "land." We have, therefore, Passasquauke,
"miry land." See Arrasquaug and Assasquage.
284. PASSQUESSIT: "the east end of Fisher's
Island, Southold town" (President Stiles's Itiner-
ary, 1761; Trumbull's Indian Names in Conn.}.
Trumbull gives no signification. The east end of
the Island is quite high with hills and bluffs,
so I would suggest that it is the equivalent of the
Narragansett pasuckquish (R. Williams), Delaware
pachsucquin, "to rise," "to stand up," with the
diminutive locative suffix, es-et; Passuqu-es-et,
"at the place where it rises or stands up."
285. PATCHOGUE: a village in the western part
of Brookhaven town. Pochoug Neck containing
some three hundred acres was number three, in
the seven necks of land disposed of in Avery's
lottery in 1758. The name by some of the Long
Island historians is said to have been derived
from a so-called Pochaug tribe of Indians. That
an individual Indian has a similar cognomen and
lived in Brookhaven town is proven by a deed of
1703, where Paushag signs as one of the grantors.
The popular meaning, among the residents of the
village is, "a place of many streams," but the
etymology of the word will not allow this inter-
pretation. Variations are Pochoug, 1758; Pochog,
1759; Patchague, 1825. Similar names of places
i8o Indian Place-Names
occur in New England viz.: Pachaug River in
Voluntown and Griswold, Conn.; Pachaug Neck
on Taunton River, Mass. Westbrook, Conn.,
was called Pochaug (on some maps Patchogue).
Trumbull gives: Pachaug = pdchau-auke, denoting
a "turning-place", whence perhaps the river's
name; and says: " Patchogue in Brookhaven, L. I.,
is probably the same name." But Pochaug in
Westbrook, he derives from pohshdog (Eliot),
"where they divide in two," from the fact that
two rivers came together there and were regarded
by the Indians as one divided river (Indian
Names in Connecticut}.
286. PATCHUMMUCK: a locality mentioned as
one of the bounds of Hashamomuk Neck, at the
head of Tom's Creek, Southold, 1660, viz.: "and
so to the North sea at the head of the said creeke
called in Indian Patchummuck, so along to the
North east to a place called Minnapaugs"
(S. R., vol. i., p. 208). The name appears as
Pashimamsk in Salmon's Certificate of 1645,
recorded in 1750 (S. R., vol. ii., p. 276). The
word Patchummuck = Pdchau-omuk, "turning aside
place," "place where it turns aside," because at
this point (the head of Tom's Creek) the bounds
"turn aside" to the northeast. See Patchogue.
287. PATTERSQUASH : a small island opposite a
creek of the same name at Mastic Neck, Brook-
On Long Island 181
haven town. It appears first in 1670, viz.:
"a tract of land running from the head of Pater -
squas which is to be understood, all the land and
meadows comonly called patter squas" (B. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 27). Variants are Patterquash, 1790;
Patter quos, Paterquas, Pattersquash (various maps) .
This is another instance where the early form
seems more like a personal name ("comonly called
Patter squa's land and meadow"). An Indian
lived on Mastic at this period called Paterquam.
His name is on Smith's deed to Indians in 1700.
Trumbull says, of a similar name in Connecticut :
"It might be from petuquis, 'round'; -as or -es,
diminutive; petuqu-as 'a small round place,' 'hill/
'wigwam,' or 'sweat house.' ' See Poosepatuck.
288. PAUCACKATUN : This form is found on a
contemporaneous copy of the original Indian
deed of 1648, made by Richard Terry, formerly
in the library of the late John Carson Brevoort.
289. PAUCHOGUE : a creek in the town of Islip.
290. PAUCUCKATUX: a creek on the bounds of
Hashamomuk Neck, Southold town, probably the
one known as Tom's Creek. First mentioned in
the Indian deed of May 6, 1648, viz.: " Mama-
wetough Sachem of Curchage, conveys to Gov.
182 Indian Place-Names
Eaton, Stephen Goodyear and another of New
Haven, for six coates, a tract of land beginning
at a creeke called and knowne by the name of
Paucuckatux, bounded on the west by the land
in the occupacon of William Solmon, extending
itself eastward towards Plum Isle, the breadth
thereof also, to the North and South sea, and also
Plum Isle aforesaid" (Book of Deeds, vol. ii.,
Office Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). An Indian
deed of 1660 has: "and from thence southward to
a creek called Paucuckatux." Again in 1661:
"to a certain creek the Indians call Paugetuck
on the southside" (S. R., vol. i., pp. 208, 210).
The name Paucuckatux is derived from paucucka
( = Massachusetts pohqueta], "divided"; -tuck,
"a creek," "tidal river," "cove," "estuary."
291. PAUGETUCK: see. Paucuckatux.
292. PAUMANACK, Pommanock: a name of
Eastern Long Island, governed by the Sachems of
Shelter Island and Montauk. The first mention
of the name that I have been able to find is in the
Indian deed for Gardiner's Island, May 3, 1639:
" Yovawan, Sachem of Pommanocc and Aswaw
Sachem his wife," etc. (Lechford's Note Book,
pp. 129, June 27, 1638 to July 29, 1641). The
title "Sachem of Pommanock or Paumanack" was
used only by the Sachem of Montauk. The four
On Long Island 183
Sachems of the district covered by this title were
brothers, consequently were united into one band
for mutual protection and interest. In the various
deeds given by the two Sachems the following
variations occur: Pommanocc, 1639; Pamunke,
1648; Pammanach, 1656; Pawmanuck, 1658; Pam-
manake, 1658; Paumanuck, 1659; Paumanacke,
1659; Pamanack, 1659; Pommanock, 1665. Some
authorities have also Paumanacke and Pauman-
hacky. The meaning suggested in the Brooklyn
Eagle Almanac for 1889: "land where there is
travelling by water (cf. the Delaware pomma'-
hum, "to travel by water," etc.) seemed to be
right as applied to the cove-indented shores of
this part of Long Island, but later investigation
compelled me to reject it for the one given in the
same Almanac for 1890, viz.: "land of tribute."
Here pauman or pomman = Narragansett, pum-
munun, "he offers" or "devotes"; pummen'um,
"contributes" (from this comes pumpom, "a
tribute of bear's skin"). Eliot has up-paupau-
men-uk (Numbers, viii., 21), "he habitually or by
custom offers it." Thus we have Pauman-auke,
"land of tribute. " That this part of Long Island
was under tribute at this period and previous
both to the Pequots and to the whites, is abun-
dantly proven by all the older writers, such as
Gookin, Winthrop, and others. "At a meeting
of the Commissioners of the United Colonies of
N. E. at Hartford, Sept. 6, 1644, Youghcoe, the
184 Indian Place-Names
Sachem of Manhansett on Long Island, presented
himself to the court, desiring that, in regard he
was tributary to the English and had hitherto
observed the articles of agreement heretofore
made (1637), he might receive from them a cer-
tificate, etc., whereby his relation to the English
should appear and he be preserved as much as
might be from unjust grievances and vexations."
Therefore they gave the following certificate:
"and whereas the Indians in the eastern part of
Long Island are become tributaries to the English
and have engaged their lands to them ; and whereas
Youghco, Wiantance, Moughmaitow, and Weenaka-
min do profess themselves friends to the English
and Dutch It is our desire that the said Saga-
more and their companions may enjoy full peace"
(Plymouth Col. Records, vol. ix., p. 18; Thompson,
vol. i., p. 365). See the discussion of Paumanack
in the Algonquian Series, vol. iv., pp. 21-38.
293. PAUQUACUMSUCK : a creek now called
the "Wading River" at the post office of the
same name, Riverhead town. It is mentioned
in all the early deeds relating to the tract of land
called "Occabuck, " being its western boundary.
The deed of 1648 being an exception. Variations
are: Pequaockeon, i66o;Quaconsuck, i66o;Pauqua-
consut, 1665; Pauquaconsuck, 1666; Paquaconsit,
i67g;Pauquacumsok, 1686; Pauquacumsuck, 1685;
Paquahkossit, 1687 (S. H., vol. i., 2). In the
On Long Island 185
testimony of Paucamp, an old Indian, aged 80,
taken down by Wm. Wells in 1660, with the aid
of an interpreter, in the presence of many English
and Indians, we find: "and further says that the
bounds of Occabauk aforesaid go on a straight
line from the head of ye River (Peconic) to the
wading creek on ye North Beach (at the sound)
which is called Pequaockeon because Pequaocks are
found there" (Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p. 213,
Office of Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). The
components of Pauquacumsuck are: Pequaock =
poquahoc (Unkechaug) , poquauhock (Narragan-
sett), p'quaughhaug (Pequot), pekahat (Ab-
naki), quohaug (Montauk), signifying either "thick
shell" or "tightly closed shell" (Trumbull); the
name of the round clam or quohaug (Venus
mercenaria L.) found in great abundance on Long
Island; keon represents the Massachusetts ts-
keon (Eliot), "to wade"; -suck, "outlet." Po-
quahoc-keon-suck thus signifies "the brook or
outlet where we wade for clams, " "a clam wading
brook." The late Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan sug-
gests that the English name is derived from
wading after the clam, whilst the aboriginal
means the locality of the fish; in short, clam
river (Amer. Hist. Mag., 1858, vol. ii., No. 5,
294 PAUTUCK: creek at Moriches, L. I. See
1 86 Indian Place-Names
295. PAWCUCK: a neck of land in Westhamp-
ton, L. I. See Apocuck.
296. PAYAQUOTUSK: a neck mentioned in the
certificate to Wm. Salmon, as being northeast
of his house on Hashamomuk Neck, Southold town,
1645, viz.: "to the neck north east of my house
which neck is called Payaquotusk" (S. R., vol. ii.,
p. 276). The neck is now called "Pipe's Neck."
It takes its name from the estuary on its southern
extremity which divides into two branches. See
297. PEACEPUNCK: west branch of the Nise-
quogue River, Smithtown. It is so named in a
partition division among the heirs of Richard
Smith, May 14, 1736, "then layd out a Certain
tract of Land on the right of Deborah Lawrence
Containing five hundred acres lying on the west
side of Smithtown river att a place where the Mills
now stands bounded as foloweth begining att the
said river att a certain branch of the said river
lying southward of the said Mills called the peace-
punck branch, etc." (Copy from O. B. Ackerly,
Esq.) See Pesapunck.
298. PECONIC: the river that separates the
towns of Southampton and Riverhead, the Peconic
Bay, and a village in Southold town now perpetu-
ate the name. By a deed, dated June 12, 1639,
On Long Island 187
(really June 12, 1649) James Farrett conveyed
to Edward Howell and associates, the first settlers
at Southampton: "All those lands lying and
being bounded between Peaconeck and the easter-
most Point of Long Island, with the whole breadth
from sea to sea" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. iii., pp.
21, 22). In the Indian deed to John Ogden, May
12, 1659, the bounds are given: "Northward to
the waters of the bay and to the creek of Acco-
baucke, westward to the place called Pehecon-
nacke" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 156). Variations
are: Pehaconnuck, 1667; Pehik-konuk, 1667; Pehic-
koneck, 1667; Peaconnock, 1679; Peheconnuck,
1688; Pehoconneck, 1689; Peaconnet, 1690; mod-
ernly, Peconic. In the Brooklyn Eagle Almanac
for 1888, Ifgave the meaning as "water at point of
land. " This was furnished me by Prof. E. N.*Hors-
fordof Cambridge, who derived it frompe-, ' 'water' ' ;
-igan, "a point"; -ak, "land." I am satisfied
that this is an error, ignoring the long and more
ancient form of the name. Besides pe= "water, "
is an inseparable generic used only at the end
of compound words and inadmissible as a prefix,
being equivalent as such to nippe or neape, as in
Neapeage, Napock. It has been suggested that
the name might be derived from pecanuc, "nut
trees," or was one of the forms of poquannock,
"cleared land." Pelletreau's paper on Long
Island Indian Names derives it from the Nar-
ragansett paquanau auke, "a battle field," "a
188 Indian Place-Names
slaughter-place." This, no doubt, is also incor-
rect. Peconic or pehik-konuk was a locality
limited in extent, a village of the Indians (Col.
Hist., N. F., vol. xiv., p. 600). Paucamp, an old
Indian, said in 1667: "that the place had been an
ancient seat of sachemship time out of mind"
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 2). Another testified:
"that there had been a small plantation of Indi-
ans there, but they being few were driven off"
(E. H. R., vol. i., p. 260). The exact spot to
which the name belonged is certainly difficult
to locate. I have suggested it may have been
"Indian Island" or the village site discovered
at Aquebouge in 1879, but Ogden's bounds went
westward of that place to Peheconnacke. How-
ever, the Indian name is the parallel of the Massa-
chusetts (Cotton) peuk-komuk, or peakomuk,
"little house," from pedsik, "small," "little,"
and komuk or komik, "a place inclosed," "a
field," "a house," etc. Cotton uses both forms
peuk komuk and peakomuk, as does Ogden in his
release to Southampton, 1667 (S. H. R., vol. i.,
p. 163). Eliot uses komuk for "field, " "place,"
"house," "temple," etc. (also plural for "fields").
Therefore Peconic might be translated as a "small
plantation" as stated in James's testimony in 1657.
299. PEHIK-KONUK: see Peconic.
300. PENATAQUIT: a former name of Bay
On Long' Island 189
Shore, Islip town, taken from the creek at that
place. In the Indian deed for Aweeksa Neck to
John Mowbray, May 30, 1701, the bounds were:
"Northward from the heads of Cagaqunk and
Penataquitt Rivers to the bounds between the
North and South Indians." Thompson gives
the name to the neck. The name appears also
as Penettiquott, 1720; later Panoihticutt. Our
Penatuckqut is susceptible of two significations.
It may be derived from pena (Narragansett penayi) ,
' ' crooked ' ' ; -tukq, ' ' a tidal river, " "a creek ' ' ;
-ut, " at " ; = Pena-tukq-ut, "at the crooked creek " ;
or Pena-tugk-qut, "at the crooked tree." The
early forms favor the latter and the "crooked
tree" may have served as a bound-mark, as did
the maple tree at the head of the other river. See
301. PEQUANET: A neck of land at Orient,
L. I. Mentioned in a letter of John Tuthill
dated 1.8. 1660 as the "Pequanet further neck."
Probably a variant of Poquatuck (q. v.).
302. PEQUASH: a neck of land at Cutchogue,
Southold town, now known as Goldsmith's Neck.
One of the "first necks in Corchaug bounds."
The name is found on record as early as 1658,
viz.: "old bounds of Southold that is to saye,
from Tom's creek east to Puckquashinecke
west" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. no). Variations are
Puckquash, 1661; Pequash, 1662; Poquash, 1669.
The word is sometimes abbreviated to "Quasha."
It signifies "open land," from a word correspond-
ing to the Massachusetts polnquashinne (Eliot),
which, as descriptive of a tract of land or field,
means "open level ground. " According to Trum-
bull, "the Indian planting lands were either
pauque-auke, land naturally 'clear/ 'open,' or
pauq'uun-auke, 'land made clear,' 'a clearing';
after it had been once planted or dug over, it
was called pauquettahun-auke, 'land opened,' or
'broken up'. "
303 . PESAPUNCK : a neck of land at Cutchogue ,
Southold town. "This large neck of land, always
considered one of the choice farms of the town,
lies midway between Corchaug and Mattituck,
having for its western boundary from the 'Manor
Hill' for a distance of half a mile or more the main
road; and the waters of Peconic Bay, and the
creek between Fort Neck and Reeves' Neck
forming its other boundaries. The neck is
owned by John Wells, the 7th in line of descent
from Wm. Wells, the first settler at Southold"
(J. W. C., Note, S. R., vol. i., p. 272). First
recorded in 1654, viz.: "The meadow of Master
John Booth commonly called the Pissapunke
meadow"; again, 1658: "a peice of meadow at
the Pissapunck half of which is Mastr boothes"
(S. R.). Variations are: Pessepunk, 1676; Peso,-
On Long Island 191
punck, 1677; Pisapunke, 1679; Pieceapunck, 1686.
It is the same as the Narragansett Pesuponck,
"hot house," one probably being located in the
neck opposite the palisadoed village of the Indians
at "Fort Neck" mentioned above. The "hot
house" is thus described by Roger Williams:
"This Hot-house is a kind of a little cell or cave
six or eight foot over, round, made on the side of
a hill (commonly by some Rivulet or Brooke);
into this frequently the men enter after they have
exceedingly heated it with store of wood, laid upon
an heape of stones in the middle ; when they have
taken out the fire, the stones still keepe a great
heate; Ten, twelve, twenty more or less enter at
once starke naked, leaving their Coats, small
breeches (or aprons), at the doore, with one to
keep all; here they sit round these hot stones an
houre or more, taking tobaco, discoursing and
sweating together, which sweating they use
for two ends : First to dense their skin, secondly to
purge their bodies, which doubtlesse is a great
means of preserving them and recovering them
from diseases when they come forth (which is
a matter of admiration) I have seen them runne
(summer and winter) into Brookes to coole them
without the least hurt" (Key to the Language
in America, 1643).
304. POCHOUG: neck in Brookhaven town.
This name corresponds to the Massachusetts
192 Indian Place-Names
Pohshdog (Eliot), "where they divide in two,"
"turn aside," "turning place," etc. See Pa-
305. POMICHES: a creek at East Moriches,
Brookhaven town. "In 1677, the Indian John
Mahew sold a neck called Watchauge, bounded
on the east by a small brook called Mattuck, and
on the west by a creek called Pomiches, the head
of which, once a marsh is now a valley which
crosses the main village street, Munsell's Hist.
S. C. (Brookhaven, p. 28). Some early deeds give
Pameeches, or Pamachees Pond; Permichees
Swamp, 1773. This word seems to denote "a
crossing," or something that comes from "aside,"
"athwart a path" (cf. Massachusetts pum-
meche, "crossing"; Delaware pemitschi, "from
the side, " or "athwart"; pemitschecheu, "a cross-
way"). The creek probably crossed the Indian
path, or else it may be named from the fact
that the path crossed the creek. The swamp was
located at the head of the creek.
306. POMMANOCC: see Paumanack.
307. PONQUOGUE: a neck of land on Shinne-
cock Bay, Southampton town. Ponquogue light-
house is located on this neck. The locality is
not referred to in the records of the town until
1738, when it appears as follows: "And then
On Long Island 193
we proceeded to Rampasture in Poganquogue
and laid out an highway from the head of the
long cove, Running directly across Poganquogue
Neck" (S. H. R., vol. iii., p. 100). Variants are:
Pauganquogue, 1742; Pogenquake, 1743; Paugan-
2 u g, 1750; Paugunquag, 1775; Pagonquag, 1825;
modernly Ponquogue. De Kay has also Bondy-
quogue. Dr. John G. Shea gave W. S. Pelletreau
as its meaning "the pond at the place where
the bay bends," holding that it was derived from
an original Pauganquaquanantuck. There is noth-
ing in the etymology of the word to warrant this
meaning, nor does it appear to have been derived
from quaquanantuck, a meadow some miles to the
west. Paug = pe-auke, ' 'water-place," "pond," is
an inseparable generic and used only at the end of
a compound word; consequently the prefix paug
cannot here mean a "pond." I have suggested
its derivation from pauqu'un-auke, "cleared land, "
"land made clear" (Brooklyn Eagle Almanac,
1888, 1889, 1890). This I now believe to be the
true derivation, the name being one of the many
forms applied by the Indians to "land either
clear or made clear."
308. POOSEPATUCK : a locality on the north-
east part of Mastic Neck, where a small creek
empties into Forge River. The neck is now the
home of a small remnant of the tribe known as the
Unkechaugs. On July 2, 1700, Wm. Smith
194 Indian Place-Names
gave the following deed: "Bee it knowe to all
men that the intent sayd Indien, there children
and posterryte may not want suffisient land to
plant on, forever, that I do hereby grant for mee,
my heires and assigns forever that Wisquosuck
Jose, Wionconow, Pataquam, Stephen Weramps,
Penaws, Tapshana, Wepsha, Tucome and Jacob,
Indian natives of Unquachock, etc. one hundred
akers in Mastic Neck fifty acres at pospatou.
ffifty acres at Constbles Neck, and ten acres
at qualican" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 91). Variants
are: Pusspa'tuck, 1794; Pusspa'tok, 1794; Poospa-
tuc, 1845 ;Poospatuck, 1888. In the Brooklyn Eagle
Almanac for 1888, 1889, I gave the meaning as
"little river falls," or where "a little river falls
nto tide water." A better etymology would be
"union of two rivers and a fall into tide water,"
or where "a cove or creek bursts forth, flows out."
The prefix poosepa- or pus spa'- is the equivalent
of the Narragansett paspisha, "he rises"; Massa-
chusetts pashpishau (Eliot), "he arises," "bursts
forth," "blooms (as a flower)," etc.; -tuk, "tidal
river or creek. " Compare Paspahegh in Virgin-
ia: "the mouth of this river [Chickahominy]
falleth into the great river [the James] at Pas-
pahegh, 8 miles above our fort" (John Smith's
True Relation, 1608, p. n). Also Paspeshauks
in Connecticut: "forte called Saybrook als Pash-
peshauks at the mouth of the River Kennecticut"
(Gardiner's Island Deed, 1639); Pashpesh-auk,
On Long Island 195
"land at the bursting forth," "uniting of the
river with the sound." Similar names occur
also in Rhode Island.
309. POQUATUCK: mentioned by the various
histories of Long Island as being the Indian name
of Orient Point, Southold town. It does not
appear on the town records. It may have be-
longed to the cove, now called Long Beach Bay,
being an open, wide, body of water. The name
is derived from poqua-, "clear," "open"; -tuck,
1 ' tidal river, " " cove, " or " creek. ' ' See Paqua-
310. POQUOTT: Dyer's Neck, between Setauket
and Port Jefferson, Brookhaven town. It is tra-
ditional and is not found in the records, but is
mentioned by Thompson and others. The name
denotes "clear land," "open country"; pauqu 1 -
auk-ut, "at the land naturally clear or open."
Peguawket and Pigwacket, Fryeburg, Me., are
forms of the same name. See Pequash.
311. PORIGIES: a small neck of land at Mastic,
Brookhaven town, situated on the west side of
Snake Neck at the Woodhull farm. So-called
from the Indian who two hundred years ago made
his home there, Porridge s Neck. We find in
the Indian deed for Yamphank Neck, 1688,
196 Indian Place-Names
"Wopehege allis porridg. "In the Indian deed
of 1690 for roads that crossed this neck, to Richard
Woodhull, it appears as "Waphege" only (H. B. R.,
vol. i., pp. 70-75). Probably the Indian was so-
called on account of his fondness for that old
dish, samp- porridge. The word would thus be
not of Indian origin linguistically.
312. POTINACK: a hole or deep depression on
Montauk about a mile west of the "Hither Plain"
U. S. Life-Saving Station, in close proximity
to the cliffs, sometimes filled with water. Bearing
the same name are two other holes : (a) Potinack
hole, short distance north of the above in the
woods, a flaggy hole, (b) Potinack hole, a watering
place at the junction of four farms at Amagansett.
In the East Hampton Records (vol. iv., 1889) I
translated this name as "where the land sinks,"
that is "gutting in," making it correspond to the
Massachusetts ptoae, with the locative -ack,
"land," and related to Potunk. I may be in
error as regards this derivation, and it may
simply be one of the many forms of Appuhqui-
auke. See Appaquogue and Potunk.
313. POTUNK: a neck of land and meadows at
West Hampton. In the Indian deed to John
Ogden, May 12, 1659, the bounds were: "North-
ward to water of the bay and to the creek of
Accaboucke, westward to the place called Pehecan-
On Long Island 197
nache, and southerly to Potuncke's" (S. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 162 ; E. H. R., vol. i., p. 156). Variations
are: Potunck; meadow at Potunk, 1683; meadow
at Potonke, 1686; Potunk, 1696. The name is
related to the Chippewa petobeg, "a bog"; Abnaki
poteba", "to sink in the mire." Trumbull gives
Potonke, "a place where the foot sinks," "a boggy
place." Podunk, the Indian name of a tract of
meadow adjoining Quabaug Pond in Brookfield
(Worcester Co.), Mass., seems to be the same
word. The components are: pot-, "to sink,"
314. POXABOG: a farming district, and a pond
at Bridgehampton. It is first found on record
in the laying out of the South Division of South-
ampton in 1712, viz.: "Runs into a litel slade
for water ner paugasaboug Then we went east-
ward of paugaseboug by East Hampton path"
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 162). Variants are: Pougoso-
boug, 1726; Pogaseboge, 1724; Poxabogue, 1763;
modernly Poxabog. W. S. Pelletreau, Esq., in the
Town Records, gives the meaning as a "bathing
place." This is incorrect, as it does not describe
the pond ; beside the suffix -bang is a frequenta-
tive for the inseparable generic pe-auke, "water-
place," "a pond." The first part is paugasa
(Trumbull), "to open out," or "to widen,"
"spread out." Paugasa-baug, thus means "a
pond that opens out," or "widens," which this
198 Indian Place-Names
pond frequently does. In dry seasons, it contains
a very little water, but in wet seasons I have seen
it very full, flowing out through its outlet into
Sagg Swamp and Pond, across the Easthampton
315. POYHAS: a swamp within Hashamomuk
bounds, Southold town. Mentioned in the deed
of 1660, as having been reserved at a previous
sale, viz.: "they the said Indians reserving out
of the said neck to themselves two swamps, one
called Poyhas, the other Weakewanopp" (S. R.,
vol. i., p. 209). It was reserved for the use of
Poyhas, an Indian who lived and planted there,
and was one of the "five wigwams" referred to in
the Jackson deed of 1640.
316. PUMCATAWE: a tract of land in Brook-
haven town. Recorded in the Fletcher patent for
the Manor of St. George, 1693, V ' 1Z - ' "alsotwosmall
tracts of land and meadow, lying east of Mastic
River called Pumcatawe and Hoggs Necke"
(Thompson, vol. ii.). In the Graham survey,
Sept. 19, 1693: Puncatane or Puncataue, Puenca-
tame, Punecatone. The name is that of an Indian
who formerly lived on the land. A Montauk
Indian had a name very similar, viz. : Pokkatone,
varied as Poquatone.
317. PUNG-PLUES : a small creek in Brookhaven
town, at Moriches. Mentioned in the Indian
On Long Island 199
deed of 1681, for a neck of land and meadow,
with a little island at the south end, viz.: "being
the second smal neck from Setuck, bounded
on the est by Watchauge, on the south by the
bay, on the west by a small creek, pung-plues;
on the north a miele up in the woods" (B. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 51). It was probably called Pung-plue's
neck, from the Indian who lived there.
318. PUNK'S HOLE: a name formerly applied
to the village now known as Manor, Riverhead
town, or to a locality near that hamlet. Punk
was a name given by the Indians to a fungous
growth found on old oak trees and stumps, and
used by them for fuel (cf. Delaware punk,
"ashes," "dust," "tinder," "gunpowder," etc.).
The traditional origin of Punk's Hole is that an
early settler became lost in the woods, and was able
to locate himself only by these growths on some
old trees in a hollow. On being asked where he
had been, he replied, "At Punk's Hole." See
the account of punk in the "Handbook of Ameri-
can Indians North of Mexico (vol. ii., 1910, p.
319. QUACONSUCK: an abbreviated form of
Pauquacumsuck (q. v.). "In 1660, Capt. John
Scott conveyed to Thomas Hutchinson (late of
Lynn, Mass.), a tract of land, lying from South-
ampton westward 30 miles, at a wading river
2OO Indian Place-Names
called by the Indians Quaconsuck" (Thompson,
vol. ii., p. 320).
320. QUADAMS: hill in the Indian field, near
the Oyster Pond, Montauk. From the mark of
the possessive case, it was probably so-called from
some Indian who resided in the "Field. "
321. QUAGGA: Indian trail or path in the
western part of Southampton town at Atlantic-
ville. Mentioned in 1656: "4th neck begins at a
marked tree a little below quogo path," and in
1738: "which fence is within a few pole of Quagga
path" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 114; vol. iii.,p. 119).
This trail or path crossed all the necks in this
section. The whites called it quagga or quago
path because it led to Quaquanantuck Neck at
the meadows. See Quaquanantuck.
322. QUAGO : a ditch in the western part of
Southampton town. Mentioned in a survey
of meadow land, 1712, viz.: "and ye Island of
sedg in the west end of Quago Ditch and ye medow
upon ye beach from ye west end of Quago ditch"
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 159). It is the ditch that
connects Shinnecock Bay with the Great South
Bay, through the Quaquanantuck meadows, men-
tioned previously in 1675, viz.: "so running
thence round by the bay to the ditch ye towne
digged" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 253). This is
On Long Island 201
another abbreviation of Quaquanantuck. See
323. QUALICAN: a locality on Mastic Neck,
Brookhaven town. Mentioned in Wm. Smith's
deed to Indians at Pusspa'tok in 1700, viz.:
"and ten akers at Qualican" (B. H. R., vol. i.,
p. 91). This name is perhaps the equivalent
of the Delaware qsahican, "to measure" (q'sahi
"measure it ") ; Chippewa dibaigan, l ' measure.
So-called because it was land "measured" or "laid
out" for the Indians' use.
324. QUAMUCK: a place on the Great South
beach opposite Atlanticville, Southampton town.
It was at one time an inlet from the ocean some-
times known as the "old inlet," but now closed
for many years. An old resident of Moriches,
Alexander Ryder, aged 85 in 1889, gives the
information, that "a large and extensive flat
formed where the water rushed in and out; on
this flat they formerly drew their nets for the
small fish locally known as 'mummies,' used as
bait for eel-pots, etc." This word is apparently
an abbreviation of some such term as Enaugh-
quamuck (q. v.).
325. QUANCH: an island in the Great South
Bay opposite Bellport, Brookhaven town. The
earliest record is in 1773, viz.: "Place ye west
2O2 Indian Place-Names
end of a slip of meadow between Quanch and
whale house poynt" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 192).
326. QUANDOEQUAREOUS : west branch of New-
town Creek, Queen's Co. So-named in the deed
of July 13, 1666: "from thence running upon the
line westward by the south side of the hills, till
it meet with the south line which is extended from
the west branch of Mespat kills called Quandoe-
quareous" (Riker's Annals of Newtown,~p. 72).
Variants are: Quandus Quaricus (Book of Deeds,
vol. ii., p. 135, Office of Sec'y of State, Albany,
N. Y.), Quandus Quaricus (Furman's Antiq.
of L.I. , p. 181).
327. QUANTUCK: bay and creek at Quogue
in western Southampton town. It is first re-
ferred to in the laying of Quaquantuck Neck in
1673, viz.: "Assops Neck from Quantuck bay
on the west side to the little rivulet commonly
called Cuttings creek" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 253).
Gov. Andros, in 1676, gave John Cooper permis-
sion to make fishing- weirs in two creeks or rivers ;
"one being called Meacocks (the bay) and the
other Quaquantuck" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv.,
p. 727). Variants are: Quantuck Creek, 1687;
Quantuck, 1682, etc. Quantuck is probably an
abbreviation of Quaquanantuck. If not, it might
be translated "long tidal stream," from quan-
On Long Island 203
(Massachusetts qunni), "long"; -tuck, "tidal
stream," "creek." See Quaquanantuck.
328. QUANUNTOWUNK : northern part of Fort
Pond, Montauk, East Hampton town. The
Montauk Indian deed of 1661 to the inhabitants
of East Hampton gives the following: "All the
peice or neck of land, belonging to Mtmtaukut
land westward to a fresh pond in a beach, on this
side westward to the place where the old Indian
fort stood, on the other side eastward to the new
fort that is yet standing, the name of the pond
being Quanuntowunk on the north and Konhun-
ganik on the south" (Hedges's Address, 1849,
Appendix, p. 83). It appears also as Quaunonto-
wounk (Ranger's Deeds of Montauk, 1850) and
is varied as Quannontowock, Quannotowounk,
Quanotowonk. Owing to a mistake made by the
late David Gardiner in his Chronicles of East
Hampton and quoted by nearly every historian
since, this name has been applied to the "Fresh
Pond" in the "Hither Woods," when it really
belonged to "Fort Pond" ("Muntaukut land
westward to a fresh pond in a beach"). This
quotation means all the land on the western end
of Montauk to a fresh pond as its eastern bound-
ary. The deed was written and executed at West
Hampton, the Indians being there under protec-
tion of the English, in order to escape the Narra-
gansetts, as set forth in the deed: "On this side
2O4 Indian Place-Names
westward (East Hampton side) to where the old
Indian fort stood" (on the west side of Nominick
Hills at Neapeague). This takes in the whole
of "Fresh Pond" and goes nearly a mile further
west (see Sale of Montauk and Map, 1879):
"On the other side eastward to where the new
fort is yet standing" (on Fort Hill overlooking
Fresh Pond). The "fresh pond in a beach"
describes "Fort Pond," the other being in the
woods and surrounded by hills. The name of
the pond (only one being mentioned) is Quanun-
towunk on the north and Konhunganick on the
south. This proves that both names belong to
Fort Pond. In the East Hampton Records (1889,
vol. iv.) I suggested a meaning that seemed to be
correct by etymology and with reference to the
location to which it was applied, viz.: quanon,
"long"; "towunk," a ford, " wading-place, " refer-
ring to the outlet of the pond through which the
Indians dragged their canoes. I had previously
given an interpretatio i in the Brooklyn Eagle
Almanac for 1889, as "where there was a fence."
This I now consider more correct than the other,
for close study of the deed and of Eliot's Indian
Bible has convinced me that it is the parallel of the
Massachusetts (Eliot) quaneuntunk, "a division,"
"turning-place," "a fence." This is used by Eliot
sometimes with a prefix as in qussuk-quaneuntun-
kanit ( Jer. xxxix. , 4, " a wall ' ' ; literally ' ' at the place
of the stone division"). Quanuntowunk was the
On Long Island 205
"fence" that divided or separated the beach on the
northern part of the pond, and is referred to in
the deed, viz.: "know ye allso yt for ye securing
of ye Easterne parte of Montaukut Land, which
ye Indians are to live upon, yt the Inhabitants
of ye aforesaid East Hampton shall from time
to time, keep up a sufficient fence upon ye North
side of ye foresaid pond, and the Indians are to
secure ye South side of ye foresaid pond, from
all cattle, During ye time their corn is upon the
ground." Thus Quanuntowunk was the "fence"
on the north; Konkhonganik the "fence" on the
south. The original deed has the name Quaun-
329. QUAQUA. See QUOGUE.
330. QUAQUANANTUCK : a locality in the west-
ern part of Southampton town. First found on
record at a town meeting of 1651, when: "the
inhabitants agree to give Richard Odell tenn
pounds in good merchantable wampum for gratu-
ity of resigning up his title of land at Quagan-
antuck" ; again in 1652: "the said attempt to
regain Shinnecock meddow shall bee by cutting
a trench between Shinnecock water [the bay] and
Quaguanantuck water" (S. H. R.,vol. i.,pp. 79, 88).
Variations are on record : Quaguanantuck meddow,
1652; "Thos. Halsey shall have the priviledge of
the medow called Quaquantuck" 1659; Quaquanan-
206 Indian Place-Names
tick, 1662; Quaquanantuck, 1663; Quaqquanantuck,
1665; Quagquantick, 1665; Quagwanantuck, 1666;
Quaquenantack, 1667; Quaquantuck, 1676. It was
called in the early days of the town the "Qua-
quanantuck purchase," and for short, at varied
periods, was known as the Quaqua, Quago, Quogo,
Quagga, Quag, and lastly as the Quogue purchase
(S. H. R., vol. i., ii., iii). Dr. John G. Shea, in
a communication to Wm. S. Pelletreau, Esq.,
gave the meaning as the " place where the bay
bends." This cannot be the meaning in the
sense as given, although it might bend under fool .
The name is derived from the Massachusetts
(Eliot) equivalent of quequan, "to quake," "to
tremble"; quequanne (Trambull), "a shaking
marsh"; -tuk or -tuck, the inseparable generic
name for "river" or "stream," denoting water
in motion (the verb tukk was nearly equivalent
to the Latin fluctuatur, Trumbull). Thus Qua-
quanne-tuck signifies "a cove or estuary where it
quakes or trembles," being descriptive of the
extensive meadows that border the waters now
known as Quantuck Bay (Quequaneht-auke, "where
the land shakes or trembles"). See Quantuck.
331. QUARAPIN: a round swamp in Hunting-
ton. The name refers to "where Quarapin, an
Indian, formerly planted" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 37).
332. QUASHA. See Pequash.
On Long; Island 207
333- QUGGALUNE: a locality in the western
part of Southampton town, mentioned in the
laying out of the north division of the Quaquanan-
tuck purchase in 1738, viz.: "and then a highway
of four pole wide the east side of Assoops Neck
then a high way of eight pole wide from thence to
Quggalune, and then a highway gust at the going
over of the creek or head of the Swamp" (S. H.
R., vol. iii., p. 117). Derivation uncertain.
334- QUINTE : a creek in the town of Islip.
335- QUIOGUE: a neck of land between Aspa-
tuck and Quantuck creeks in the western part of
Southampton town, formerly known as "Little
Assop's Neck." This is another derivation from
Quaquanantuck. Land and meadows at Quiogue
are mentioned in 1753 (S. H. R., vol. iii., p. 162).
336. QUOCHAGUE: "June 19, 1787, Henry
Wells deposeth and saith that the fence at a
place called the Little Neck in Quochague stands
where it did forty years ago" (S. H. R., vol. ii.,
p. 514). See Cutchogue.
337- QUOGUE: a village in the western part of
Southampton town on Quantuck Bay. The tract
of salt meadows and land in this section was known
as the Quaquanantuck purchase, and for short,
208 Indian Place-Names
was called by abbreviated forms of the longer name :
Quago, 1738; Quoag, 1742; Quagga, 1742; Quag,
1742; Quogue, 1742, and afterwards. Both Geo.
R. Ho well, A.M., and Wm. Pelletreau, the two
Southampton historians, derive in the same way.
Furman (Antiq. of L. /.) and E. B. O'Callaghan
(Hist. Mag. of Amer., vol. ii., p. 149) derive it
from quohaug (Narragansett poquohaug), "the
round clam." Neither had access to the records
of the town to show its early origin, which accounts
for their error. See Quaquanantuck.
338. QUONETTQUOTT : a locality mentioned
in the records of East Hampton town, May 19,
1690, viz.: "John and Margaret Robinson of
Cornbury in the bounds of Flushing, Queen's Co.,
do appoint our friend Andrew Gibb of Quonett-
quott in ye County of Suffolk, our atturney to col-
lect sums of money due for rent of a dwelling
house in the town of East Hampton" (vol. ii.,
p. 253). Andrew Gibb was a prominent man at
that period and Quonettquott was probably the
West Connecticut River known as Connetquot
brook in Islip, although he owned land near
both streams. Quonne-tukq-ut signifies "at the
long river," from quonne, "long"; -tukq, "tidal
river"; -ut, "at." See Connecticut.
339- QUORIAC: a locality in the town of Baby-
lon. Mentioned in the will of Jonas Wood, 1688,
On Long Island 209
who leaves his son Jonas "four acres of Meadow
either at Quoriack or at Tantamuntatauket."
Jonas Wood, ST., having been one of the original
purchasers of the meadow and afterwards of the
upland on Guscomquorom. Of the latter I am
inclined to regard Quoriac as an abbreviation.
340. RAPAHAMUCK: a neck of land in the
western part of Southampton town, near Flanders.
Mentioned in the allotment of the Aquebaug
meadows in 1686, as follows: "And goes on both
sides the Birch Creek to a marked tree in Rapaha-
muck neck, soe the lots increase downe the neck
to Rapahamuck point, the Island by Rapaha-
muck is number 33" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 117).
Nath. Halsey's will, March 7, 1745 (Pelletreau's
Abstracts) mentions "one lot of meadow at the
bottom of Jumping neck called Rapahannock."
Birch Creek mentioned above was called at an
earlier date Suggamuck, "the bass fishing-place."
Rapahamuck neck is at the mouth of this creek.
The R, as given in the English notations was not
sounded by the Indians according to Eliot, Hecke-
welder, and others, and it does not appear in any
of their works. Therefore I consider rapah to
correspond to the Massachusetts and Narragan-
sett appeh, "a snare, " "a trap. " The other com-
ponent is the locative -amuck, "a fishing-place."
Rapahamuck signifies, therefore, "a trap fishing-
2IO Indian Place-Names
place"; and this may have been a weir erected
by the Indians, or a net placed across the mouth
of Suggamuck in the manner mentioned by Wood,
viz.: "when they use to tide it in and out to the
Rivers and Creeks, the English at the top of an
high water do croffe the creeks with long seanes or
Baffe Nette, which stop in the fifh; and the water
ebbing from them they are left on the dry ground,
sometimes two or three thousand at a set"
(N. E. Prospect, 1634, p. 38).
341. RASSAPEAGUE: "a peninsula, containing
two or three fine farms, and terminating on the
east, near the entrance to Stony Brook Harbor"
(Thompson, vol. i., p. 459). On Nov. 10, 1658:
"The Indians sell land lying betweene Seatalk
Bounds and Nesaquak River and a swampe
called Rasapeague on the west side" (Book of
Deeds, vol. ii., p. 90, Office of the Sec'y of State
Albany, N. Y.). In probably January, 1687,
Andrew Gibb petitions for "a patent for two small
islands of creeke thatch meadow in the Rassa-
peague Bay, the first being the second island from
the harbor mouth to the northwestward of Stony
Brook, and the other next adjacent" (Cal. of
Land Papers in the Office of the Sec'y of State,
p. 44). Rassapeague, the swamp or meadow,
signifies: "a muddy or miry water place or cove."
The components of the word are rassa-, the
equivalent of the Delaware assiska, "muddy" or
On Long Island 21 1
"miry"; -pe-auke, "a water-place," "a cove."
Compare Rassaweak, mentioned by Capt. John
Smith (Gen. Hist, of Virginia, 1624, Book iii.,
p. 86) ; "I am not now at Rassaweak half drowned
with myre, where you took me prisoner."
342. RECHOUWHACKY: see Rockaway.
343. RECHTANK: Corlear's Hook, Manhattan
Island, New York (De Kay) ; also Nechtank
(De Kay). Schoolcraft says: "Corlear's Hook
was called Naghtognk. The particle -tonk here
denotes sand." The Dutch notation is Nechtauk,
or Nechtank. See Naghtognk.
344. RECHTGA WANES : "A point on East River
near Hell Gate" (De Kay).
345. RECKKEWICK. See Marechkawick.
346. RINNEGACKONCK : a tract of land at the
Wallabout, City of Brooklyn, King's Co. It is
first noted in the Indian deed dated June 16, 1637,
"when Kakapetteyno, Pewichaas, owners of the
district transferred to George Rapaljie a cer-
tain peice of land, called Rinnegackonck, situate
on Long Island reaching from a kil to the
woods south and east to a certain copse where
the water runs over the stones." Variations are:
Rinnegachonk, 1638; Rinnegaconck, 1638; Renneg-
212 Indian Place-Names
konc, 1641; Rinngackonck, 1651 (Col. Hist. N. Y.,
vol. xiv., p. 3, et seq.). Rinnegackonck ( = Winneg-
ack-onck) signifies "on the pleasant land" (Massa-
chusetts Wunnegenayeunk, Cotton, "a delightful
place)." The components of the word are rinneg
( = winneg, corresponding to Massachusetts winne
or wunne], "pleasant"; -ack (-auke), "land";
-onck, locative, "at." See Algonquian Series,
vol. ii., pp. 21-29 f r a further discussion of the
347. ROANOKE: a point of land on the north
shore of the Island in Riverhead town. This is
probably not a Long Island Indian name, but one
adopted from the island and river Roanoke in
North Carolina, of which Trumbull says: "The
name of the island and the river Roanoke appears
to have been taken from 'Roenoke' or 'Rawrenock'
(as Captain John Smith wrote it), the common
shell-money of the Indians corresponding to the
white ('wompom') l peag' of the northern tribes.
Beverly describes this sort of 'peag' as 'made of
the cockle-shells, broken into small bits, with
rough edges drilled through in the same manner
as beads. ' Its name was given to the island for the
same reason, probably, that the Indians of New
Netherland and part of New England called Long
Island 'Sewan-hacky,' because it supplied the
material for the manufacture of 'sewan' or 'bead-
money' " (Hist. Mag., vol. i., 1870, p. 47). See
On Long Island 213
discussion of Roanoke in the Handbook of American
Indians North of Mexico (vol. ii., 1910, pp. 392,
348. ROCKAWAY: name now applied to several
localities in the southern part of Hempstead town.
It originally designated either the long neck of
land now known as Rockaway Beach, or the
principal place of residence of the Rockaway
tribe on this neck. This name appears first on
record in the Indian deed of 1639: " Mechowodt
the chief Sachem of Massapeague and its depend-
ances, who conveys all his patrimonial lands
on the southside of Long Island from Rechouw-
hacky to Sicketauwhacky " (Col. Hist. N. Y.,
vol. xvi., p. 15). The first conveyance to the Eng-
lish in 1643 mentions it thus: " Wee of Masepege,
Merriack or Rockaway" (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol.
xiv., p. 530). De Vries, in 1643, writes: "At
evening we arrived at Rechqua Akie, where we
found the chief, who had one eye, with two or
three hundred Indians and about thirty houses.
They led us into his house and treated us as to
what they had as oysters and fish which they
catch there" (Col. N. Y. Hist. Soc., 2d series,
vol. ii., pp. I, 117). Variations are : Reckonhacky,
1645 ; Rockeway, 1655 ; Rackeaway, 1662. "In 1685,
Pamas, the Sagamore and others, sell Rockaway
Neck extending from west bounds of Hempstead to
Rockaway Inlet " (Thompson, vol. ii., p. 17). The
214 Indian Place-Names
name Rockaway has been variously interpreted,
among the significations suggested being such a
romantic one as "our place of laughing waters. "
The form of the word cited by De Vries, Rechqua
Akie, may very well signify "sandy land or
country," from rechqua ( = Delaware lekau; Chip-
pewa nequa), "sand"; -akie, "place." Another
etymology worth considering makes the name the
equivalent of the Delaware Nechoha-hacky, "the
lonely place" (nechoha, "alone"; -hacky, "place").
The name "sandy place" would fully describe
the neck of land to which it belongs.
349. RONKONKOMA: a large lake in the central
part of Long Island, on the bounds between the
towns of Brookhaven, Islip, and Smithtown.
Also applied to a post-office village in Islip town.
The first record now to be found of this name is
in the Indian deed of Smithtown, 1664, viz.:
"Bounds which they had formerly made into
Raconkumake a fresh pond aboute the midl of
Long Island" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 9). Nicoll's
Patent, 1665, has: "Bearing southward to a
certaine ffresh Pond called Raconkamuck. " Varia-
tions beside the above are: Raconckamich, 1675;
Raconchony, 1697; Rockconcomuck, 1725; Roncon-
camuck, 1735; Ronconhama, 1817; modernly Ron-
konkoma and Ronkonkama. The meaning given
by various histories of Long Island, viz.: "white
sand pond" is incorrect. A very poetical signi-
On Long Island 215
fication has been given by Prof. E. W. Horsford,
of Cambridge, Mass., viz.: "ron 'noise of
flight (as of a bird)'; konk 'wild goose'; -omack
'inclosed place,' or as a whole, 'the wild goose
resting place' (in its migrations)." I accepted this
at one time, and gave it in the Brooklyn Eagle
Almanac for 1888. In the same Almanac for 1889,
I interpreted it as "the weir fishing-place," con-
sidering the name the same as that of a pond in
Connecticut at the north west corner of Suffield
(partly in Massachusetts) called Wonococomaug,
now Congamuck. This, Dr. Trumbull suggests,
is from Wonkunk-ama^lg, "a fishing place where
there is a weir or fence" (cf. Massachusetts
wonkonous, ' ' fence, " " fort, " " stronghold ' ' ;
Chippewa wakakina, "a fence"). The same
radical appears in those terms designating a
boundary place. Taking this as our guide, and
considering the mention in the early records of
"the bounds which we formerly made" together
with the fact that the pond is always referred to
as a boundary place in the years above given, we
must look that way for its meaning. Therefore,
Raconkum, Raconkam, or Ronkonkam may be a
dialectic variation corresponding to the Massa-
chusetts (Eliot) Kuhkonkan, "a bound." This
with the locative -amuck, "a fishing-place" give
us "the boundary fishing-place." If the first
component is wonkonous, "a fence," it would
still be "a boundary-place." See Algonquian
216 Indian Place-Names
Series, vol. vii., pp. 44-48, where the etymology,
"the fence or boundary fishing-place" is preferred.
350. RUGS : a neck of land and creek in South-
ampton town at Noyack. Recorded in laying
out a highway in 1738: "Highway to hog neck
spring, another to Jonah Rogers farm, another to
Rugs stream and we the said layers out did lay
out Ruggs neck in four squadrons" (S. H. R.,
vol. iii., p. 94). Rugs stream is the brook now
known as "Thompson's Trout Ponds" at Noyack.
This was the name of an Indian residing there.
Rugg has been perpetuated as an Indian personal
name down to the present time. One known as
"Old Rugg" lived on the west side of Fort Pond
Bay, Montauk, in a little shanty, until his death a
few years ago.
351 . RUGUA : a swamp in the town of Babylon,
near Copiag Neck. It is found in the Indian
deed of the "Baiting Place" purchase, 1698, viz.:
"So running eastward to ye head of Rugua
Swamp" (H. R.). This is another instance
where a swamp takes its name from the aboriginal
dweller on its banks. That swamps were fre-
quently chosen by the Indians for their dwelling
places is proven frequently in the early records of
the town; for instance, a deed of 1698 says: "a
parcel of land within the bounds of Huntington
by a swampe comonly called ye round swamp
On Long Island 217
where Quarapin formerly planted" (H. R., vol. ii.,
p. 37). Nearly every swamp in the vicinity of Sag
Harbor examined by the writer has a shell-heap on
its northern slopes showing Indian sojourners in
352. RUNGCATAMY: a tract of land in the town
of Htmtington. It is found on record in the
Indian deed to Wm. Massey, April 28, 1692:
"Certain Land on Long Island called by the
Indians Rungcatamy a certain tract or parcel!
of land at Runscatamy aforsd at Round swamp
so called and bounded on the north by the country
road" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 107). This is probably
the name of the Indian who erected his wigwam
there, and possibly the same one whose name
appears on the deed of 1 702 corrupted to Cungemy
(H. R., vol. ii., p. 28). Quarapin another Indian
planted at another part of the same swamp. See
353. RUSCOCUNKS: a creek east of Mastic
Neck, town of Brookhaven: so-named in a deed
from William Smith to John Wood, dated Dec. 20,
1693. (Copy by O. B. Ackerly, Esq.) This
name is of the same derivation as Areshunk of
which it is a variation. See Areshunk.
354. RUSKATUX: neck of land at Seaford,
Queen's Co., sometimes known as Seaman's
218 Indian Place-Names
Neck. "More than 1500 acres lying east of the
Indian purchase and the Gov. Kieft patent, in-
cluded all the meadows and uplands of Ruskatux
Neck" (Munsell's Hist. Queen's Co.}. Ruskatux
corresponds to the Mohegan Muxguataug; Narra-
gansett, Muskechoge, "rushes," "place of rushes";
or Mukkosqut, "meadow," from the same root.
In Massachusetts a parallel would be Moskeht-auk,
"grass land," from moskehtu (Eliot), "grass,"
"hay"; -auke, "land."
355. SABONACK: see Seponack and Seabamuck.
356. SACHAPONOCK: "large pond in town of
Brookhaven" (De Kay's Indian Names}. Prob-
ably a mistake for "Sagg pond," at Sagaponack,
Southampton town, no pond of that name being
located in Brookhaven. See Sagaponack.
357. SACHEM'S HOLE: a locality formerly ex-
isting near the fourth mile stone from Sag Harbor,
now obliterated by the turnpike to East Hampton,
where the bearers of the body of the Sachem of
Shelter Island rested in 1651. See various histo-
ries of Long Island.
358. SACHEM'S HOUSE: so designated in 1650,
as the residence of the Sachem of Shinnecock.
359. SACHEM'S NECK: the estate of the late
Dr. S. B. Nicoll, on Shelter Island, has been
On Long; Island 219
known from an early period as Sachem's Neck.
It did not take its name from the local Sachem, as
supposed by some, but from another of whom we
have the following record: "Oct. 16, 1675, Am-
busco late Sachem of South-hold hath liberty to
remove w' h his family to Shelter Island to abide
there with Mr. Sylvester's permission but no
others to be admitted to come on, or to follow
him, w th out particular leave" (Col. Hist. N. Y.,
vol. xii., p. 703). The word Sachem corresponds
to Narragansett Sachimau; Delaware Sagkimau;
Abnaki Sa n gma"; Chippewa Sakima, "he is
chief." It is from the same root as the Massa-
chusetts Sonkqhuau, "he prevails over, has the
mastery of. " See Sagamore.
360. SACKHICKNEYAH : creek in the northern
part of Newtown, Queen's Co., near Fish's Point.
It rises in "Trains meadow" and empties into
Flushing Bay. Is named in the deed of 1666:
"certain creek called Sackhickneyah, where Wes-
sel's mill stood" (Riker's Annals of Newtown, p.
172). This name seems to have an Iroquoian
appearance, but for all that it is probably Algon-
kian, corresponding to the Delaware, schajahik-
aney, "the shore path," from schajahikan,
"sea shore"; aney, "road," "path."
361. SACUT: a pond at Lakeville in North
Hempstead, Queen's Co. Formerly known as
22O Indian Place-Names
Success Pond. It was called by the Indians
Sacut which by a simple deflection in sound might
have been changed to Success (Thompson, vol.
ii., p. 60). " The pond is about 500 rods in circum-
ference surrounded on all sides by sloping banks
which are covered by verdure to the water's edge
and undulate with the adjacent country. It had
formerly a natural outlet to the northwest through
which its surplus waters were discharged, it now
rarely overflows" (Prime's L. I., p. 28). The name
Sacut signifies, "at the outlet," the components
being sac ( = sauk) "an outlet of a pond, " "a stream
flowing out of a pond or lake"; and the locative
affix -ut, "at," "near," "by," etc. Saco in
Maine is another form of the word. The Long
Island Sacut is the equivalent of the Delaware
(Brinton and Anthony) sakuwit, "mouth of a
creek, mouth of a river" (A. F. c.).
362. SAGAMORE HILL: residence of ex-Presi-
dent Roosevelt at Oyster Bay. Colonel Roosevelt
writes me: "Sagamore Hill is, in a sense, my
own bestowal, or, more properly, revival. There
was an old Indian named, as tradition asserts,
Mohannis, who lived in the cove here, and who
was sometimes spoken of as 'Chief or 'Sagamore, 1
and among the traditions is that both the cove
and this high promontory were called sometimes
'Mohannis Cove 1 and 'Mohannis Hill,' and some-
times 'Sagamore Cove' and 'Sagamore Hill.' When
On Long Island 221
I was young this was told me by an old Bay-man,
Jake Valentine." The term Sagamore is seldom
used by the Long Island Indians; when it is used
it generally proceeds from the mouth of a Montauk
as follows: "Assawkin the Sagamore of Oyster
Bay" (Smithtown Rec., p. 16, 1866). Saga-
more has been corrupted from Abnaki sa"gma M ,
"chief," or from the corresponding term seen
in Passamaquoddy sogmo. See Sachem.
363. SAGAPONACK, Sagabonock: a tract of
land in the eastern part of Southampton town.
The locality was known for many years as " Sagg. "
In 1889 the name of the post-office "Sagg" was
changed to Sagaponack. The name was also
bestowed upon the pond at the south adjoining
the ocean. A place called "Sag Swamp" was
known in 1712, and was the large one into which
Poxaboug pond opens. Sag Harbor directly north
derives its name from the same, having been
known in its early days as the "Harbor of Sagg, "
or "Sagg Harbor. " The locality is first referred
to in an order and reward for killing wolves in
1651, viz.: " Hee the said Robert Merwin have
notice thereof that he repaire unto the place where
the sd beaste is slaine, whether at Meacocks or
Sagaponack or elsewhere" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. 82).
Variations are: Sagaponack, 1652; "Division of
land called Sagaponach," 1653; Sackaponock,
1661; Saggaponack, 1696; Sagabunnuck, 1713;
222 Indian Place-Names
Sagabonock, 1735; Sagabonnac, 1750, etc. The
name was interpreted as " Saggapenack, 'a place
where big ground nuts grow,' " by W. S. Pelle-
treau in 1883. This derivation he obtained from
Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, who says: "Saga-
bonock, in Bridgehampton parish, Southampton,
has left only the remnant of its name to Sagg
Pond and Sag Harbor." "The great pond, com-
monly called Sackaponock" is mentioned, 1661,
in Conn. Col. Records, I, p. 368. "The sagabon
(Micmac segubun) is a ground nut or Indian
potato" (Rand). That is, I suppose, the Apios
tuber osa. "At a general court (in Southamp-
ton) held Mch. 6, 1654: It is ordered that noe
Indians shall digg for ground nuts in the plain,
or digg in any ground, uppon penalty of sitting
in the stocks," etc. (Records in Thompson's
L. I.; Mag. of Amer. Hist., 1878, vol. i., pp.
The prefix which denotes the species cannot in
all cases be identified, but the generic name with
its localizing affix is easily recognizable. Not
long since, while in conversation with an in-
telligent Chippewa Indian in regard to this parti-
cular prefix, he informed me that it denoted a
species which was "hard or difficult to get out
of the ground. " While the Massachusetts siogkke
"hard or difficult" may resemble the Long Island
sagga (or sacka) in sound, I am inclined to believe
he was mistaken, and that the Long Island sagga
On Long Island (223
is the parallel of the Cree suggee, " thick, close to-
gether," a derivation that fully describes the
tubers of the Apios tuberosa, which grow close
together, strung in clusters on a fibrous root. It
was probably the same plant discovered by Cap-
tain Gosnold on one of the Elizabeth isles, on his
visit to the New England coast in 1602, which
John Brierton, one of the voyagers, describes as
"ground nuts as big as egges, as good as Potatoes,
and 40 on a string, not two ynches vnder ground. "
See Acabonack, Seponack, and Ketchaponack.
364. SAGG : see Sagaponack.
365. SAG HARBOR: see Sagaponack.
366. SAGHTEKOOS : a neck of land in the town
of Islip, now known as "Appletree Neck."
"Sept. 26, 1692, Gov. Fletcher granted to Stephen
Van Cortland a license to purchase Saghtekoos
of the native Indians." On June 2, 1697, Gov.
Fletcher granted a patent to the same for a
neck of land called and known by the Indian name
of Saghtekoos and by the Christians called Apple-
tree neck, being bounded on the west by Oake
Neck Brook to an Indian foot path, and on the
north by the foot path to Saghtekoos Creek, and
easterly by the said Saghtekoos creek" (Munsell's
Hist. S. C., Islip). Variations are: Sagtakos, Sat-
tock's, Saghtecoos. Saghtekoos was probably the
224 Indian Place-Names
name of the Indian owner or dweller on the neck.
This is proven by the mark of the possessive
Saghtekoo's. The name is probably the equivalent
of the Massachusetts (Eliot) sese'koo, "he peeped
(as a bird)," used by Eliot for the viper, "an
adder," etc.; or any snake that "hisses"; Mic-
mac (Rand) 'mtdkoo-on, "a snake"; Narragansett
sesek, " a rattlesnake. "
367. SAMPAWAMS: see Sumpawams.
368. SANTAPOGUE: a neck of land in the town
of Babylon, south of the settlement of Breslau.
One of the five necks of meadow bought in 1659.
It is first mentioned by name in a deed of 1669;
viz. : "My alottment of meadow Lying and Being
on the south side of the Island on a neck called
Santtapauge " (H. R., vol. i., p. 134). Variants
are: Santapauge, 1669; Santepaug, 1672; Santa-
pauge, 1683; Santepogue, 1716, etc. This name is
probably the equivalent of the Massachusetts
(Eliot) sonkipog, "cool spring," "cool water,"
"a cup of cool water" (Matt, x., 42; Mark, ix., 41);
Narragansett (Williams) saun-kopaugot, "cool
water," literally, water when it is cold. Thus
we have santape-auke, "a place of cool water,"
so-called from some fine spring of cold water on the
neck to which the Indians resorted. The com-
ponents of the word would then be santa ( = Massa-
On Long' Island 225
chusetts sonkqm), "cool"; -pe, "water"; -auke,
369. SAPHORACKAM: a locality in the southern
part of Brooklyn. So-named in a patent for
land granted by Gov. Kieft, Nov. 28, 1639, viz.:
"We have granted to Thomas Bescher, tobaco
planter a certainn peice of land, situate upon the
Long Island strand of the North river bay near
Saphorakam. " Also Saphorackan (Col. Hist. N. F.,
vol. xiv., p. 27). On Manhattan the name occurs
as Sappokanican and Sapokanikan, 1648. This
name probably denotes a "Tobacco plantation,"
one planted either by the Dutch or Indians;
from sappo = uppo (Powhatan) , uhpoo (Massachu-
setts), "tobacco"; hakihakan, "a plantation,"
"land broken up for cultivation. " Josselyn says,
"the Indians use a small round-leaved tobacco
called by them or the Fishermen Poke. " This was
probably Nicotiana rustica, well-known to have
been long in cultivation among the American
savages. See also Algonguian Series, vol. ii.,
370. SASSIANS: a locality in Brooklyn, King's
Co. Mentioned in 1642, when "Wm. Kieft
granted to Jan Maye a peice of land one hundred
and twenty rods towards the woods, towards
Sassians maize land" (Furman's Antiq. of L.I. , p.
281). Sassian was probably the Indian who
226 Indian Place-Names
planted the "maize" and here was located his corn
field and home. Sassian signifies "the sower,"
"the planter, " corresponding to the Massachusetts
seseahham, Delaware sasehemen " to scatter," "to
sow"; Chippewa saswenan, "scatter"; Micmac
sasodoo, "to scatter," etc.
371. SAUGUST: a neck of land lying at the east
end of the village of Southold fronting the harbor
on the south, with a creek on its east side and
another on the west. The greater part of the
neck is now in the possession of Stuart T. Terry,
Esq., who resides upon it. This name is first
recorded in an entry of 1656, viz. : "Tenn acres of
earable and wood land, more or lesse lying and
being in Saugust neck the land of James Haynes
lately deceased being on the west side thereof
and John Conckelyne Senr. on the east." John
Conklyne, 1662, "sells to Thomas Hutchinson
sometime of Lynn in the Massachusetts Bay all
that p'cell of land adjoining to the west side of
the field fence, containing about thirty acres in
Saugust neck" (S. R., vol. i., pp. 31, 221).
Mr. Stuart R. Terry writes: "Traditionally,
Saugust was the name of its Indian owner."
Often tradition is at fault and cannot be depended
upon; it seems to be so in this case. Many of the
settlers of both Southold and Southampton were
from Lynn, Mass., even the above entry of 1662,
names the buyer as ' ' sometime of Lynn. ' ' Saugus
On Long Island 227
was the name of a river at Lynn; Montowampate
was the Sachem of Saugus near Lynn in 1633.
Lynn was called Saugust (at Saugus) up to 1637,
when it was changed by vote to "Lin" (Mass. Col.
Rec., pp. 628, 641). That locality was probably
familiar to Hutchinson and others so they transfer-
red the name to their Long Island home. The name
seems to be one of the many dialectic forms de-
rived from sank, "an outlet" (of river or brook),
the variations being almost innumerable. Sau-
gust = saugus-ut, "at the mouth of a tidal river."
With this may be compared Saugatuck in Con-
372. SAWGOGE: mentioned as a locality in
Smithtown by a mistake of De Kay in his Indian
Names. He derives his authority probably from
Thompson (vol. i., p. 436) who quotes a Rhode
Island Indian deed on the supposition that the
Richard Smith of Rhode Island was the same one
who settled Smithtown. Sawgogue and Paquina-
paquogue meadows, near Wickford, R. I., men-
tioned in Coquinoquand 1 s lease to Richard Smith
are referred to in Parsons 's Indian Names in
373. SCOQUAMS: a neck of land and a small
creek in Islip town, east of Babylon village. The
neck is now termed Schookwames . In a deed of
1740 from Nath. Weeks to John Rogers the
228 Indian Place-Names
neck is called Scoquams: "The western bounds
of the town is Sampowams River. Next to the east
there is a small creek called Scoquams" (Munsell's
S. C., Islip). Variations are: Sequams, Sco-
quaumes, Schookwames. It has been traditionally
known as the "Snake place," but I regard it as
the personal name of an Indian who formerly
lived there, and that his name denotes "the
spring," or "early summer" corresponding to
Massachusetts (Eliot) sequan; Narragansettsequan;
Abnaki sigoon; Cree, sekwun; Micmac segnook;
Delaware siguon, "the spring," "summer." A
Shinnecock Indian called Sequanah, "the spring,"
made an agreement to try out whale blubber in
1680 (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 80). A Secatogue
Indian Sachem had the same name, viz. : Sewamas,
in 1698, afterwards corrupted to "Wameas. "
374. SCRECUNKAS: an Island in the Great
South Bay, now known as Cedar Island, Babylon
town. The Indian deed of 1689 says: "A
certaine Island of meadowe lying between ye
south medows and ye beach called by us Screcunkas
all the meddowe lying westward of Pascu-ucks
(the creek) of the sd Island Screcunkas 11 (H. R.,
vol. ii., p. 48). Variations are: Sucrunkas, Su-
crumkas, Sesecunhas, 1816. Possibly the name
is the equivalent of the Delaware sikunikan,
' l scourgrass , " " rushes . ' '
On Long Island 229
374 a. SCURRAWAY : the Indian name of Josiah's
Neck, Babylon town east of the village of Amity-
ville. One of the three necks of land purchased in
1658, but not named in the records. It is first
noted by this name in 1697, thirty-nine years
after the first purchase of the meadows, viz.:
"a certain neck of land lying on ye south side
this Island within bounds of Huntington, called
by ye Indians Scuraway and by ye English Josiah's
neck" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 205). Variations are:
Seascawany, i6^8',Scurrawaugh, 1885. This name
signifies probably "snake place," and is the same
as Scucurra or "snake hill" in Connecticut, of
which Trumbull says: " scuc is probably Mohe-
gan skooks; Narragansett, askug; Delaware ach-
gook, "snake." Or it may have been the name
of an Indian living there, called "the snake."
375. SEABAMUCK: one of the lesser necks of
land into which the Manor of St. George, Mastic,
Brookhaven town, is divided. The first neck east
of the Connecticut or Carman's river, at its mouth.
The most common and modern form of the name,
Sebonack, appears also as a variation of Seponack
Neck, Southampton town. J. Hammond Trum-
bull considers them alike in derivation; this may
be so, but the earliest form Seabamuck or Seba-
muck shows that they are not identical. A record
of 1675, says: "Francis Muncy before he died
exchanged his medow in the ould purchase with
230 Indian Place-Names
Samuel Daiton, for his lott of medow at Seaba-
muck in the nue purchase " (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 35).
August Graham's Draught of land, surveyed for
Wm. Smith in 1693, has it Sebamuck (Land
Papers, vol. ii., p. 207, Office Sec'y of State, Albany,
N. Y.). Later variations are: Seboinack, 1767;
Sebonnack, 1767; Sabonack, 1888. The name is
to be interpreted as Seab-amuck, "the river
fishing-place" (at the mouth of the East Connecti-
cut River). The components are: scab- (Massa-
chusetts seip, Unkechaug sebus), "a river";
-amuck, "a fishing-place."
376. SEAPOOSE: the inlets that are opened in
the beaches on the southside in the towns of East
Hampton and Southampton, in order that the ocean
may flow into the various ponds and bays, or vice
versa, are still at this day known as the " Seapoose."
As found in the Southampton records it always
refers to the inlet connecting Meacox Bay with
the ocean. It is opened by digging, but it soon
closes again. In a record of 1650 we find:
"Ten men [named] are to have for their paines 35.
per day at the seapoose" Tow y n Meeting, 1652:
" Isaack Willman in a passionate manner said that
some of them that voated for raising of the mill
knew noe more what belonged to the sepoose
than a dogg, he hath given satisfaction" (S. H. R.,
vol. i., pp. 69, 85). Variations are: Sepose, 1654;
Sea-poose, 1684. The name Seapoose signifies
On Long' Island 231
a " little river, " being the parallel of the Narra-
gansett (Williams) sepoese, "little river." The
name is also applied in recent times to the "under-
tow" of the ocean both on Long Island and in New
Jersey, where it takes the form of "Sea-puss. "
377. SEATQUAA: a neck of land, Hempstead
town, Queen's Co. " Jany. 27, 1794, Thos. Cardale
& Co. petition for two necks of land lying east-
ward of the town of Hempstead called by the
Indians Rockaway and Seatquaa, with the out-
lands thereunto belonging" (Cal. of Land Papers
in Office of Sec'y of State, pp. 69, 70). The name
Seatquaa is to be interpreted as Sea-tukq-auke,
"land at mouth of a creek." The components
would be sea- representing an Algonkian sak or
saki, "mouth of a river"; -tukq, "tidal stream";
-auke, "land." See Seatuck.
378. SEATUCK: creek or river on the boundary
between the towns of Southampton and Brook-
haven at Eastport. Mentioned frequently as the
western bound of Southampton. First in the
Topping Indian deed of 1662, viz.: "That is to
say to begin at the Canoe Place otherwise Nia-
muck and so to run westerly to a place called and
known by the name of Seatuck" (S. H. R.,
vol. i., p. 1 68). Variations are: Seatuck, 1666;
Setuckett, 1693; Setuk, 1748; Setuck, 1790, etc.
The name Seatuck denotes "the mouth of a river
232 Indian Place-Names
or tidal creek." Setuck would be derived from
sea-, representing an Algonkian sak or saki,
''mouth of a river"; -tuck, "tidal stream."
Setuckett is the same word with the locative
-et, "at. " See Seatquaa.
379. SEAWANHACKY, Sewanhaka: a name of
Long Island found recorded in the documents
relating to the purchases by the Dutch from the
Indians at the period of settlement. It is not
found in the early records relating to the eastern
part of the Island as far as careful search reveals.
It is found first recorded in three Indian deeds,
two dated June 16, 1636, the other July i6th, same
year, for meadows at what is now Flatlands,
King's Co., viz.: "Situate on the island called
by them Sewanhacky, also Sewanhacking" Varia-
tions are: Suanhacky, 1639; various histories of
Long Island, Seawanhacky, and Sewanhaka. The
prefix sewan or seawan was one of the names for
"wampum" the "shell-money" of the Indians.
It was known in New England as Wampumpeag,
Wampompege, Wompam and Wampum; the Dutch
knew it as seawan, sewant; while on the Virginia
coast it was called peak, a roughly made discoidal
variety being known as ronoak or roenoke, and
heavy flattish beads pierced edgeways were
called runtees. The Dutch Governor Kieft fixed
by placard the price of the "good splendid sewant
of Manhattan," at "four for a stuyver. " It is
On Long' Island 233
mentioned as early as 1622 when a "Dutchman
imprisoned one of the chiefs on his vessel and
obliged him to pay a ransom of one hundred and
forty fathoms of Zeewan, which consists of small
beads they manufacture themselves and prize
as jewels" (Doc. Hist. N. Y., vol. iii., p. 45).
Trumbull, in the Narragansett Club Reprint of
Roger Williams's Key, gives the following as the
real meaning of sewan: " Seahwhoog, 'they are
scattered' (Eliot). From this word the Dutch
traders gave the name of sewand or zeewand (the
participle seahwhoun, 'scattered,' 'loose'), to all
shell money just as the English called all peage, or
'string beads' by the name of white or wampum."
The seawan was manufactured most abundantly
and in considerable variety on Long Island, the
shore of which abounded in shells and was called
for this reason Sewan-hacky, or the "Island of
Shells." The immense quantity that was manu-
factured accounts for the fact that in the most
extensive shell-banks left by the Indians it is rare
to find a whole shell (Thompson, vol. i., p. 87).
This signification, which is the traditional, is not
quite right. The terminal affix corresponds to the
Delaware -hacky or -hacking, "land" or "country"
and not the Narragansett hoghk, "a shell, " literally
a ' 'covering. ' ' Sewan-hacky therefore signifies ' ' the
sewan country. ' ' Eliot would have written it Seah-
who'un-auke. See the discussion of the name Sea-
wanhacky in Algonquian Series, vol. iv., pp. 19-26.
234 Indian Place-Names
380. SECATOGUE: neck of land in the town of
Islip and the locality from which one of the Island
tribes derives its name. It is mentioned in the
Dutch archives as early as 1639 (see Sicketen-
whacky). In 1657, a Dutch vessel was wrecked
on the "South Beach" at a place called "Secou-
tagh." The same year "Keeosschok, the Sachem
of Secontok, has Resigned up all that Right or
Interest hee might anyways lay unto the necks
of meadow" (H. R., vol. i., p. n). Variations
are: Seguctatig, 1657; Seaquetauke, 1659; Secatake,
1670; Secutaug, 1696; Seaqutogue, 1697; Sequatak,
1698; Sicketauge, 1807; modernly, Secatogue and
Sequatogue. From the uniformity this name
presents on being compared with twenty or thirty
variations in spelling, as they occur in the early
records, it is evidently the parallel of the Narra-
gansett (Williams) seqid or sucki, "black,"
"dark colored," with the locative suffix -auke,
"land." Secatogue represents thus Sequt-auke,
"black or dark colored land," and the name be-
longed originally to the extensive meadows that
border the upland. The meadows are now known
as the "Black Grass Meadows." Compare the
name of Suckiauke or Sicaiog meadows at Hartford,
381. SELASACOTT: "township of Brookhaven "
(De Kay's Indian Names, 1851). See Setauket.
382. SENEX: creek at Centre Moriches, Brook-
haven town. " Senekes or Senex River or Creek
is that water which comes nearly to the business
part of Centre Moriches, on the west side of the
main avenue leading to the bay" (Munsell's 5. C.,
Brookhaven). The survey and map drawn by
Aug. Graham, Sept. 10, 1693, give Sinnekes
point and creek nearly at the mouth of Mastic
River on the east. Fletcher's Patent, Manor of
St. George, 1693, has, "Bounded easterward from
ye maine sea to a river or creek called Senekes
River" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 79). Seretches, 1714;
Senekees, 1790; Senex, 1882. Sinnekes was prob-
ably an Indian who lived at one time on the point
or at the creek. The name may be related to the
Massachusetts (Eliot) assinnekousse, "a thorn,"
"a bush." With Senex in Long Island may be
compared Senexet, Senexsett, valley and meadow
in Windham Co., Conn.
383. SEPONACK, Sabonac: a neck of land at
Southampton, on Peconic Bay. A farming local-
ity in close proximity is also called by the same
name, and is probably what was called the " Sea-
ponack old ground." An order dated 1652 says:
"Thomas Halsey Sr. and his partner shall lay out
Sagaponack and Seponack mowing ground for a
present supply of the Inhabitants of this towne
for this year" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. 87). Varia-
tions are: Seponack 1651; Seaponack, 1654; Sebon-
ack, 1659; Sabonac, 1873, etc. The etymology of
236 Indian Place-Names
Seponack was given as "ground nut place" by
Wm. S. Pelletreau in 1883. Dr. J. H. Trumbull
says: " Sebonack, Seaponack, a neck, on Peconic
Bay, Southampton was a 'large ground-nut
place.' Sebon or sepen (Abnaki sipen; modern
Penobscot, she-pen; Micmac, shuburi) is the root
of the Yellow Lily (L. canadensis) . Thoreau's
Indian guide told him that these roots were good
for soup, that is, to cook with meat to thicken it,
and showed him how to prepare them (Maine
Woods, pp. 194, 284, 326). Sabonac point, near
Mastic, Brookhaven, has the same name differ-
ently spelled. . . . The tuberous rhizoma of the
Yellow Nelumbo or Water Chinquapin (Nelum-
bium luteum) was highly prized by the western
Algonkins. It resembles the sweet potato, and
Dr. Torrey says (Botany of New York, vol. i., p. 38)
that 'when fully ripe, it becomes, after considerable
boiling, as farinaceous, agreeable, and wholesome
as the potato.' The Chippewas call it mako-pin
(for makwa-piri), i. e., 'bear's potato'; from which
comes the name of Macoupin County, Illinois"
(Mag. Amer. Hist., vol. i., pp. 386-7, 1877).
In the lease of Shinnecock Hills, which included
the above tract, 1703, we find: "We the trustees
do hereby grant liberty to them and theirs, to
cut flags, Bull-rushes and such grass as they
usually make their mats and houses of, and to dig
ground-nuts, mowing land excepted anywhere in
bounds of Southampton" (S. H. R., vol. iii., p.
On Long; Island 237
373). Seponack is therefore derived from sepon
(Abnaki sipen), "ground-nut"; -ack, "place."
See Ketchaponack, Sagaponack.
384. SETAUKET: a village in the northwestern
corner of Brookhaven and the locality where the
first settlement of the town was begun. The
Indian deed April 14, 1665 gives: "Articles of
agreement, and a firme bargaine agreed and
confirmed between the Sachem of Setaucet, Wara-
wakmy by name" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. i). Varia-
tions are: Seatauke, 1657; Setokett, 1660; Setawke,
1664; Setauk, 1669; Setaket, 1675; Seataukett, 1670;
Setalcott, 1 68 1. In the various town patents it
also appears as Setaulcott, Selasacott, and in 1643
we find the Dutch notation Sichteyhacky. Wm. S.
Pelletreau in his paper on Long Island Names,
says: " Setauket, in its original form seems to
mean 'land between the streams/ the same name
being found in New England." But the New
England form Shetucket is entirely different, and
our Setauket requires a different translation. It
designated the "land at the mouth of the creek,"
at this place where Warawakmy had his village
at the era of settlement. The stream was the
site of a mill in 1690. Thompson (L. I., 1843)
says: "Where was then a mill-pond is now a tract
of salt meadows." Setauk-et thus signifies "land
at the river," or "land at the mouth of a river or
creek," from an original Setukqut. Compare the
238 Indian Place-Names
various forms of the Delaware Sacuwit, Sacunk,
Sacona, and Saquik, denoting "the mouth of a
river"; Chippewa (Baraga) Saging, "mouth of a
river"; Cree (Lacombe) Sakittawaw, "mouth
of a river. " See Seatuck.
385. SHAGWONG: a hill, point of land, and a
reef of rocks on the northeastern part of Montauk,
in the "Indian Fields." Variations are: Shag-
wagonock, Shagwannock, Shaugwong, Shagawom,
Shagwommonock, Shagwanack (various maps
and histories of Long Island). The name is not
found in the town records nor in any of the Indian
deeds. Not having any early forms of the above
to guide us it is difficult to tell its derivation. It
seems to be the equivalent of the Delaware
(Zeisberger) schajawonge, "on the side of a hill,"
with the locative, "place on the side of a hill."
The Indian huts until a few years ago were located
on the side of this hill.
386. SHAHCHIPPITCHAGE : a bound -mark in the
"North Neck," Montauk, East Hampton town.
Mentioned in the Montauk Indian deed of 1670,
viz.: " Shahchippitchage being on the North side
of ye sd Land, midway between great pond and
Fort Pond" (Hedges's Address, 1847). A variant
is Shahchippetchuge (Ranger's Deeds, 1851). The
names mentioned in this deed were evidently
bestowed at the time the land was laid out, as they
On Long Island 239
are all bound-marks, this one being a pile of stones.
The name is composed of shah, a form correspond-
ing to the Massachusetts nashaue (Eliot), "in the
middle," "midway" (frequently abbreviated to
ashwa-, shaw-, shew-, she-, etc.). Chippitchage =
Massachusetts cMp'pachaug (Eliot), "a separated
place," "place of separation.' This makes the
name Shah-chip' pachaug, "the midway place of
separation," as stated in the above.
387. SHANCSOMACOCKE : a locality at Flat-
lands, King's County. Mentioned in the Indian
deed of May 13, 1664, viz.: "both of upland and
marshes, any way belonging thereto, as the Straun
Beach or Beaches, as namely that running out
more westerly, with the Island adjoining, and is
at the same time by the ocean sea wholly in-
closed, called hoopaninak and Shanscomacocke,
etc. " (Stiles's Hist. King's Co., p. 78). The name
Shanscomacocke represents Mashans-comac-ocke,
"much inclosed place," or "wholly inclosed
388. SHATEMUC: the Mohegan name of Hud-
son River. Variations are Shattemuc, Chatemuc.
Schoolcraft says: " Shaita, in the cognate dialect
of the Odjibwa means a pelican." It cannot be
affirmed to denote the same thing in this dialect,
nor is it known that the pelican has ever been
seen on this river. I am inclined to regard the
240 Indian Place-Names
name as the equivalent of Nashaue-tuk-ut, "place
where two streams meet," literally, "a place
between." (Compare Shawtucket, also called
Showattucket, in Connecticut.) The Showtucket
Indians occupied the crotch of the Quinebaug and
Shetucket rivers (pronounced by the Indians Shoo-
tucket, which, I am informed, signifies "confluence")
(Rev. Dr. Nott's MS. Account of Franklin,
1800, according to Trumbull). The same name
occurs in Rhode Island as Shewatuck and Showa-
tucquese (Parsons). Shatemuc perhaps described
the "union" of the East River with the Hudson.
389. SHAWANGO: "neck between Great Pond
and Fort Pond, Ocean side, Montauk" (De Kay's
Indian Names). I have been unable to find any
other authority for the above. De Kay may have
got it from a map of 1845, where Shewango
Neck includes the whole of Montauk east of the
Great Pond, but this is an error for Shagwong
390. SHAWCOPSHEE: a locality on Staten
Island, Richmond Co. In 1664, " Shawestcout
and Erramorhas Indians residing at Shawcopshee
upon Staten Island, sell a tract of land at Hallets
point" (Munsell's Hist. Queen's Co.}. It ap-
pears also as Shawkopoke (Thompson, vol. ii., p.
1 50) . I have been unable to learn the exact local-
ity to which this name was given; but it was
On Long Island 241
probably one of the harbors on the north shore
of the island. The word is composed of shaw
corresponding to Delaware lechauwaak, "fork"
(of a stream); Massachusetts nashaue, "place
between," "fork," "midway," etc.; copshee or
kopoke, corresponding to kuppi, "closed" (kob-pog,
"a haven," "harbor"; copsie, a term denoting
"a safe place of landing, formed by eddy waters, "
according to Schoolcraf t) . We get thus N'shauw-
kopoke, "the midway haven or harbor."
391. SHEPMOES: a plantation upon the Island
Manhattan, probably at or near the present East
1 4th Street (Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., p. no).
It was probably so called from an Indian who
392. SHERAWOUG: a locality on the east side
of Stony Brook Harbor, near St. James, Smith-
town. The late Hon. J. Lawrence Smith, in his
Notes on Smithtown, in Munsell's Hist. S. C., says:
"The whole east side of the Harbor was called
Sherrawog." A variant is Sherawoug (Thompson,
vol. i., p. 458). I have been unable to obtain
early forms to verify it, but the name seems
to be the same as Ashawog, Assawaug, Nashaway,
etc., occurring in various forms throughout New
England, and on Long Island, designating "a
place between" (Massachusetts nashaue, "in
the middle"). Probably so called because it was
242 Indian Place-Names
land between Wopawog and Nissequoque or some
other limited tract.
393. SHINNECOCK: a neck of land, a bay, and
a range of hills in Southampton town. It be-
longed originally to the plain of which the neck
forms a part. It is first mentioned in the Indian
deed of Southampton, Dec. 13, 1640, viz.: "It is
agreed that the Indians above named shall have
liberty to break up ground for their use to the
westward of the creek on the west side of Shine-
cock plaine" (S. H. R., vol. i., p. 13). In town
meeting, 1641 : "It is agreed that any person that
hath lotts up on Shinecocke playne in which
there are any Indian Barnes or wells lying shall
fill them up" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 32). Variations
are: Shinnekuke, 1657; Shinnocut, 1657; Shinnikut,
1667; Shinnecock, etc. The terminal syllable of
this name, -cock, is a corrupted form of -auk-ut,
"at a place," "at the land." With its prefix,
Shinne-ank-ut, "at the level land or country," is
the parallel of the Massachusetts shinne-auke-ut
(Eliot), "level land"; Delaware shing-hacki,
"flat or level ground"; Chippewa jing- akamiga,
"there is level country." The first component
of the word, shinne, corresponds to Delaware
394. SHOCKHEYOUNE : On January 24, 1676,
Richard Smith, Sr., of Nissequauge gives to Obadiah
On Long Island 243
Smith (his son) the tract of land at the mouth of
Nissequage River on the west side from the swamp
of the creek called Shockheyoune to the North Sea,
being about 100 acres with all the meadow
(information furnished by O. B. Ackerly, Esq.,
and Wm. S. Pelletreau, Esq.). The derivation
of the name is uncertain.
395. SICHETANYHACKY : a locality given in
De Kay's Indian Names, as being a place men-
tioned in Kieft's purchase, south of Cow Bay,
Queen's Co. We find it in the Indian deed of
January 15, 1639: "The grantor's (Sachem of
Massapeag) patrimonial lands and the jurisdiction
thereof situate upon Long Island reaching in
length along the southside from Reckouwhacky
(Rockaway) to Siketenwhacky." Variants are:
Siketenhacky, 1644; Sickentanhacky, 1645 (Col.
Hist. N. Y., vol. xiv., pp. 15, 56, 60). The Secatogues'
land bounded the jurisdiction of the Massapeags
on the east, consequently this locality was the
property of the Secatogues. Sicketenwhacky which
is in Dutch notation "the country of the Secato-
gues," the terminal being -hacky, "land." See
396. SICHTEYHACKY : Dutch notation for Setau-
ket. Mentioned in treaty of 1645. See Mochgon-
397. SINTSINCK: (a) a name given to Man-
244 Indian Place-Names
hasset Bay or to a locality on the Bay, North
Hempstead, Queen's Co. "Cow Neck now called
Manhasset Neck was called by the Indians Sint-
sinck" (French's Gazetteer of N. Y., 1860). An
Indian deed of January 15, 1639, for land in
Queen's Co., states: "We Director and Council
of New Netherland testify and declare that to-day,
personally, appeared before us Mechowodt, chief
Sachem of Marossepinck, Sint sinck (also called
Schout's bay), and its dependances" (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 28).
(b) Sint sinck: tract of land at Astoria, Queen's
Co. "A tract of land near Hallets Point was
sold in 1664 by Shawestcout and Erramorhas
Indians beginning at first creek called Sunwick.
This tract was called by the Indians 'Sint sinck, ,'
and it embraced nearly the whole of Hell-gate
neck" (Munsell's Hist. Queen's Co.). This name
is probably the same as Sing-Sing in Westchester
Co., N. Y. Originally this was Ossining, said to
signify "stone upon stone," that is, "a stony
place." In 1901 the old name Ossining was re-
adopted. For this name another etymology
assinesink, "at the little stone," has been offered
(Handb. ofAmer. Indians N. ofMex., vol. ii., 1910,
pp. 161, 577).
398. SKOOKWAMS, Schookwaumes: a neck of
land east of Babylon in Islip town. "Schook-
waumes is the neck of land upon which is located
On Long' Island 245
the residence of E. B. Sutton, Esq. The Indian
name signifies 'snake neck,' or 'snake place' '
(J. W. Cooper in Babylon Signal, June 13, 1885).
This is probably a corrupted form of Sequam
or Scoguam as it was called earlier. See Scoquams.
399. SKUPASH: a creek in the meadows at
Jamaica, Queen's Co. Named in the Division
of meadows, July I, 1657: "Ye fourth are to
lie eastward from ye sayd crik in ye hasoky mea-
dows to ye River called Skupash" (Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 505). This name is possibly
a contraction of Maskituash and signifies "grass,"
"grassy," "a meadow."
400. SLONGO : Sunk Meadow, Smithtown. Hon.
J. Lawrence Smith, in his "Notes on Smithtown"
(Munsell's Hist. S. C.), says: "We are unable to
find the derivation or meaning of the name
Slongo. The inhabitants of that locality do not
remember any tradition of the name. De Kay
in his printed but not published list of Indian
names, inquires if Slongo is not Dutch."
401. SONNQUOQUAS: a name of Tom's Creek,
or the land adjoining at Southold. Mentioned
in the confirmatory deed of Hashamomuk Neck,
February 20, 1660, viz. : "All that land lying and
being neere or adjoining Tom's Creek, in Indian
Sonnquoquas" (S. R., vol. i., p. 208). This shows
246 Indian Place-Names
that Sonquoqua was an Indian who lived at this
place, and from his English name of Tom, the
creek perhaps derived its name, although the
common supposition is that it was derived from
Thomas Benedict, one of the early inhabitants
of Hashamomuk. Sonquoqua was one of the chief
men of the Manhansett tribe; his name appears on
the deed to Sylvester and Company for Shelter
Island in 1652, as " Sonqiwequahesick. " The affix
-esick, "of. the brook," probably refers to his
residence at Tom's Creek (E. H. R., vol. i., p.
402. SOUWASSETT: "Port Jefferson [Brook-
haven town] formerly Drown Meadow, called
by the Indians Sowassett" (Thompson's, L. /.,
vol. i., p. 432). The name is traditional and
does not appear in the town records, but in the
histories of Long Island it is found as Sowassett,
Souivassett, and Sonassett, the last, no doubt,
a typographical error. The name denotes "at
the place of small pines. " The components of the
word are koiiwa, corresponding to Massachusetts
ksnva, pine, in the diminutive, ks)wa-wese, or
kdjwaese, "a small (or young) pine"; the
locative affix -es-et; making Koowas-es-et (Narra-
gansett Cowawesuck}, "at the young pine place,"
or "small pine place." Several localities in New
England have retained, in forms more or less corrup-
ted, this appellation. The Indian name of the tree,
On Lon Island 247
was taken from its pointed leaves ; kous, " a thorn,"
"brier," or "having a sharp point" (Trumbull).
In the Delaware we find cuwe, "pine-tree,"
cuweuchac, "pine wood" (also varied as kuwe,
and kuweuchac] . Rev. A. S. Anthony, Assistant
Missionary to the Delawares in Canada, and a
full blooded Delaware himself, differs from Dr.
Trumbull as to its primary signification, and says
it is properly p'koweu, "it is sticky," alluding to
the resin (Lendpe-English Dictionary, 1888).
August 6, 1 910. The foregoing was written six-
teen'or more years ago, and it may or may not be
correct, so I leave it. Thompson further remarks
(Proc. N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1845, p. 131): "The
Indian name of Port Jefferson was Sowassett,
and the cove between it and Setaukett was
Poquott." After considerable inquiry as well
as personal search, Thompson is the earliest
authority for these two names whom we have
been able to discover. They may have survived
in tradition up to his day, or he may have found
them in some early deed unknown to us. Which-
soever this may be, they have every appearance
of some mistake according to our present view,
and the two are more likely to have been an
original Poquossett, "where (water) it opens out
or widens, i. e., drowns the land." This sugges-
tion is apparently confirmed by the fact that
Port Jefferson was earlier called "Drowned
Meadow." See the discussion of the adopted
248 Indian Place-Names
Indian term poquosin in the American Anthro-
pologist (n. s.), vol. i. (1899), pp. 162-170.
403. SPEONK: a village in the western part of
Southampton town, about a mile from the bound-
ary. The name was originally given to the neck
of land on which the village is located. The
creek on the east is also known as Speonk River.
The locality is not mentioned in the records of the
town until 1712, seventy- two years after the settle-
ment in 1640, and forty-six years after the Topping
purchase of 1666, of which the neck forms a
part. Then we find it as follows: "a descrip-
tion of ye meadow and upland att Speeunk, Wee
whose names are hereunto subscribed being
chosen by the town to lay ye upland and meadow
in quantity and quality as may appear by a voat
of said Town" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 155). The
word is spelled in the above record in four in-
stances as Speeunk; Speonk, 1748; Speunk, 1782.
In regard to its meaning we must remain in doubt,
for the word may be a corrupted form. Wm. S.
Pelletreau writes: "It is 'high ground,' " and
gives Dr. J. H. Trumbull as his authority. This
interpretation he probably derives from compari-
son with the Mohegan spummunk, "on high";
Passamaquoddy, spemuk, "above." But, as
these terms are used in the sense of being "in
the heavens," we cannot think it so derived, for
the land is perfectly level in this section. I have
On Long Island 249
suggested its derivation from asp-yeuonk, "place
lifted up," which is similar to Trumbull's, but
from different elements. This might refer to the
bluffs on the east side of the neck, although they
are hardly high enough to merit the name of
bluffs. There is a name a few miles to the west,
which may have been duplicated on this neck,
and affords a good derivation for Speonk, viz.:
(wa)speunk, "to the edge, margin or border (of
a stream)." This will apply very well to the
topography of Speonk Neck. See Waspeunk.
404. SPHETONGA: "Brooklyn Heights, L. I."
(De Kay's Indian Names.} See Ihpetonga.
405. SQUASSUCKS : a point of land in Brookhaven
town on the East Connecticut River. Munsell
records that a dock had been constructed at a
point called Squassucks (Hist. S. C., Brook-
haven). On May 10, 1728, there was"laydoute
a Highway from Squasuck's pointe below ye 15
aker lots, soe running across the necke to ye
Little fly" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 118). It appears
also as Squasucx, 1737. This point of land
derives its name from Wesquassuck, an Indian, who
lived at one time on the point. His name appears
on the Indian deed for roads in 1690 as Wesquase-
sac, and on Wm. Smith's deed to the Indians at
Pusspa'tok in 1700, as Wisquosuck (B. H. R., vol. i.,
pp. 76, 91). The word is composed of wisq, "a
250 Indian Place-Names
pot," "dish," etc.; -ussu-uk, "he finishes," com-
pletes," "makes." Hence Wisq-uss-uk, "pot
maker," as a personal name.
406. SQUAW: an Island in the town of South
Oyster Bay, Queen's Co. It is said to have been
derived from the fact that it was the refuge of the
squaws and children during troublous times. On
some maps it is spelled Skow. The word squaw
represents Massachusetts squa (Eliot uses the
compound squaas, i. e., "female animal,") or
eshqua; Delaware ochqueu, etc.
407. SQUAW-HILL: one of the range of Shin-
necock Hills, near the Tuckahoe gate, Southamp-
408. SQUAW-PIT or Squam-pit: the tract of
land in Huntington near "Deer Park," now
W-iandance, was known as the Squaw-pit purchase,
sometimes called " Squam. "
409. SQUORUMS : a neck of land on the east
bounds of Mastic Neck. From the name of an
Indian resident thereon, alternate with Waspeunk.
410. Sucos: "the site of the village of Brook-
ville in the town of Oyster Bay, Queen's Co., was
called Suco's wigwam" (Munsell's Hist. Queen- s
On Lon Island 251
Co.). So called from Suco, the Indian who oc-
cupied the wigwam. His name is an abbreviation
of Suconamon, from whom the land was purchased
in the early days of the township.
411. SUGGAMUCK: a creek near Flanders,
Southampton town, now called Birch Creek. It
is designated by its Indian name in the testimony
of the old Sachem Paucamp, taken down by Wm.
Wells in 1660: "being in the west end of the Bay,
five creeks . . . the third Suggamuck" (Book of
Deeds, vol. ii., p. 213, Office of Sec'y of State,
Albany, N. Y.). The name M 'sugg-amuck sig-
nifies "a place where they went to catch bass,"
" a bass fishing-place. " The components of the
word are sugg, suggig, for 'm'suggig, "bass";
Narragansett (R. Williams) missuckeke, "bass";
Massachusetts (Wood) -amuck, "fishing-place."
A creek on Shelter Island retains its name of "Bass
Creek" from similar happenings. Wood writes
thus concerning this fish: "TheBaffe is one of the
best fifhes in the country, and though men are some
wearied with other fifh, yet are they never with
Baffe; it is a delicate, fine fat faft fish, having a
bone in his head, which contains a fawcerfull of
marrow fweet and good, pleafant to thepallat, and
wholfome to the ftomach, when there be great ftore
of them we onely eate the heads, and fait up the
bodies for winter, of thefe fishes fome be three
and fome foure foot long, fome bigger, fome leffer;
252 Indian Place-Names
at fome tides a man may catch a dozen or twenty
of thefe in three houres, the way to catch them
is with hooke and line. The fifherman taking a
great Cod-line, to which he fafteneth a peece of
Lobfter and throwing into the fea, the fifh biting
it he pulls her to him, and knockes her on the
head with a sticke. Thefe are at one time (when
Alwives paffe up the River) to be catched in the
Rivers, in Lobfter time at the Rockes, in macrill
time in the Bayes, at Michelmas in the feas, when
they use to tide it in and out to the Rivers and
Creeks, the Englifh at the top of an high water do
croffe the Creekes with long seanes or Baffe Netts,
which stop in the fifh ; and the water ebbing from
them they are left on the dry ground sometimes
two or three thousand at a set" (N. E. Prospect,
1634, pp. 37-38). Roger Williams's (Key] says:
"The Indians (and the English too) make a daintie
dif h of the Uppaquontup, or head of this fifh ; and
well they may, the braines and fat of it being very
much, and fweet as marrow." See Aspatuck,
Messemennuck, and Rapahamuck.
412. SUMPAWAMS, Sampawams : a name now
applied to the creek that separates the towns of
Babylon and Islip. It belonged originally to the
neck, on which the principal part of the village
of Babylon is built. This name appears about
twenty-one times in the printed records of the
town of Huntington, with the following variations
On Long' Island 253
in orthography, viz. : Sampawame, Sumpwams,
Sowampams, 1689; Sumpawams , i6<)O;Sampaumes,
1697; Sumpwams, 1740; and, although "commonly
so-called" in 1689, it does not appear earlier in
the records. It is evident from the insistence
of the English possessive, that the neck of land
on which the name was originally bestowed,
derives its appellation from an Indian named
Sampawam or Sumpwam, who formerly lived
and planted there. There are other necks of land
extending into Great South Bay and contingent
waters, which take their Indian names from like
circumstances. I am aware that no Indian,
designated by this name in its entirety can be
found mentioned in the records; but there is one,
however, whose popular cognomen among the
settlers may be a curtailed reminder of Sumpwams.
In the Indian deed for Sumpwams Hook (H. R.,
vol. i., p. 171) his name is written "pwamas,"
which is seemingly near enough to justify the con-
clusion that this name in its various forms, seldom
twice alike, is a colloquial contraction. Similar
change is noticed in the English contraction
"Siases" for Josiah's Neck in the same township.
The meaning of Sumpawam is the "straight walker"
or "he goes straight," hence, an "upright or just
man." The first component sump- or saump-
is the equivalent of the Narragansett saumpi
and Massachusetts sampwi, signifying primarily
"straight," "direct," and, by metonymy, "just,"
254 Indian Place-Names
"upright," "right in action or conduct," being
used more often in this sense than in the other
by Eliot in his Indian Bible. The terminal is the
verb of motion, in the third person singular
(-aum = 8m,) or as Eliot sometimes wrote it (w8m),
"he goes." Hence we have, in Eliot's notation,
413. SUNGIC: a point of land, and a creek on
the east side of Shelter Island, Gardiner's Bay.
The name is traditional, and found only on the
maps of the Island, and in local parlance. It
denotes "a stony place," being the equivalent
of the Unkechaug sun "a stone"; Massachusetts
(Eliot) hassun, "stone"; Delaware achsin, "stone"
(cf. achsinnigeu, "stony"), with locative suffix.
The shores of the Island at this locality are quite
rocky. A point a short distance south is known
as the "Rocky Point." See Sunwicks.
414. SUNKAPOGUE: a creek in the town of
Brookhaven, Mastic Neck, so-named in an Indian
deed from Macarac, alias Humphrey, native of
Unkechogue, to Andrew Gibb, dated April I,
1690, for half a neck of land of which this creek
was a part of the east bounds. (Book of Deeds,
Southampton Clerk's Office. Copy by Wm. S.
Pelletreau, Esq.) Appears in 1692 asSunkapauk.
The name Sunkapogue corresponds to the Massa-
chusetts sonkipog, "cool water-place," "a spring
On Long Island 255
or brook of running water" (from sonqiii, " cool " ;
-paug, "water-place"). See Musquatax.
415. SUNWICKS: a creek at Astoria, Queen's
Co. It is noted in the Indian deed of Aug. I, 1664,
to Wm. Hallet, viz. : " Beginning at the first crick,
called Sunwick, westward below Hellgate upon
Long Island, and from the mouth of sd crick
south to a markt tree fast by a great rock"
(Thompson, vol. ii., p. 150). Also Sunwicks, and,
on some maps, Sunswicks. This name probably
signifies a "stone-house" (sun-wick], which the
Dutch or English had erected near the creek.
But see Sungic.
416. SWEGO: a locality in Huntington town.
Mentioned in 1771, viz. : "And we do direct Doctor
Wiggins to have Jonah Woods house at Swego or
some other remote place" (Order relating to
Smallpox, H. R., vol. ii., p. 508). It is just possible
that this name may be a corruption of Oswego,
imported from the well-known name in New York
State, which is of Iroquoian origin, the word from
which it is derived corresponding in meaning to the
Algonkian sagi-, sack-, sank-, etc., "flowing out,"
417. SYOSSET: a village in the town of Oyster
Bay.^This name is of Indian derivation; it has
been evolved from the Dutch Schouts, " a sheriff. "
256 Indian Place-Names
Schotit, Siocits, Syocits, are some of the various
stages of degradation, down to its present form.
418. TACKAN: a tract of land in Smithtown
on the Nissequogue River. "February 24, 1704,
Benj. Aske petitions for a warrant to survey
land on the Nissequogue River." On the same
date is filed a survey of 24,283 acres of land on
the river, purchased by Benj. Aske & Co. from
the Indians. On March 20, 1704, a license is
issued to Benj. Aske to purchase "a tract of land
in the county of Suffolk called Tackan" (Cal.
of Land Papers in Office of Sec'y of State, p. 70).
The tract was evidently woodland, and the name
describes the locality; being the equivalent of
the Delaware tachan "woods," "forest," "wild-
lands," etc. See Wissiguack.
419. TATAMUCKATAKIS : a neck and creek in
Babylon town, west of Copiag Neck, now known
as Great Neck, and Great Neck Creek. One of
the three necks of meadow bought in 1658 from
the Massapeague Indians, but not named. It is
first recorded in 1659, viz.: "And that half neck
which was massapage Indian land called by them
tatamunehese" (H. R., vol. i., p. 19). Also as
Yatamontitaheg (vol. ii., p. 52). This is a duplicate
of the entry of 1659, with change in spelling.
Again, in 1666, viz.: "a neck comonly called by
the Indians Copiage bounded on the west with a
On Long' Island 257
river called Yatamuntitahege" (H. R., vol. i., p. 84).
An Indian deed for the upland of Copiag Neck,
1693, nas "westward upon Tatamuckatakis Creek"
(H. R., vol. ii.). The will of Jonas Wood (Febru-
ary, 1688) has Tantamuntatauket ; Munsell gives
Tacamackacackee; and J. W. Cooper, Esq., in the
Babylon Signal for June 13, 1883, Tac-a-mac-a-
cak-ee. The name belonged originally to the
meadows bordering the creek and upland and
Tatamuckatakis signifies "meadow that trembles. "
The components of the word are tata, "to shake,
to tremble"; muckatakis, corresponding to Massa-
chusetts moskehtuash, "grass," "pasturage."
420. TAUKOMS: neck of land in the town of
Babylon. Mentioned in the Indian deed of
1697, viz-- "And a neck called by ye English
Lacten's Neck, called by ye Indians taukoms"
(H. R., vol. ii., p. 208). From the possessive
termination, this may be the name of its Indian
owner. Lacten does not appear in the early
records among the names of the English settlers,
consequently it may be a name applied by the
English to the Indian Taukom. His name seems
to be the equivalent of the Massachusetts (Eliot)
Tohke'kom, "a spring," "a fountain"; Narra-
gansett Takdkum, "a spring of water."
421. TENKENAS: Ward's Island, in the East
River, formerly called "Great Barcut," or
258 Indian Place-Names
"Great Barn Island," by the Indians was named
Tenkenas (French's Gazetteer of N. Y., 1860).
The Indian deed of July 16, 1637 has "when two
chiefs Seyseys and Numess convey to Wouter
Van T wilier, Director General of New Netherland,
the two islands, situate in the Hellegat, of which
the larger is called Tenkenas" (Col. Hist. N. Y.,
vol. xiv., p. 5). The name Tenkenas corresponds
to the Delaware tekene, "forest," "woods,"
' ' bushy, " " wild lands, " etc. See Minnahanonck,
422. TERSARGE: a locality on the north side of
Long Island, probably in Smithtown. On (prob-
ably) April 4, 1685, one Cornelissin petitions
the Governor for a warrant "to survey a tract of
land allotted to him by the Indians, at a place
called by them Tersarge, being to the eastward
of the town of Huntington on the north side of the
Island" (Cal. of Land Papers in Office of Sec'y
of State, Albany, p. 30). The name, etymology,
etc., are very uncertain.
423. TiANNA: bay and creek in western
Southampton at Good Ground. It is recorded
in the laying out of the lower division in the
Quogue purchase, 1738, viz.: "No. 12 above the
lower highway on the west side of said neck, butt-
ing to the middle highway running westward to
Tiannah water" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 101). Va-
On Long Island 259
riations are: Tianna, 1754; Tyana, 1757; Tianah,
1763; Tiana, 1782. The tradition (probably
correct) is, that Tianah was the name of a squaw
who lived at the head of the bay near the creek.
Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, in a communication
to Wm. S. Pelletreau, regards it as an abbreviation
of a longer name.
424. TINNIE'S: a hole of water on Neapeague
Beach, near the Amagansett Hills. So-called
from a squaw who was drowned therein.
425. TOWAPIONKE: a tract of land east of
Mastic Neck, town of Brookhaven, so-named in a
deed from William Smith to John Wood, dated
Dec. 20, 1693 (Suffolk County Clerk's Office,
Deeds, Liber A, p. 14. Copy by O. B. Ackerly,
Esq.). The name represents Tow-api-onke, "wad-
ing place where there is sitting down, before cross-
ing. " The components of the word are tow,
corresponding to Delaware towin, "to wade,"
"to walk in the water," "to ford"; api, the
equivalent of the Massachusetts appeu, "he
sits"; -onke (-auke), "place." See Towd.
426. TOWD: a locality near "North Sea,"
Southampton town. It is frequently mentioned
in the early records, and is still so-called. "Town
meeting, January 22, 1660, It is concluded that
the North sea neighbors shall have all that tract
260 Indian Place-Names
of land lying within their line, which line beginneth
at the old foot path goeing over the stony brook,
neer where the millstone was gotten and endeth
at the head of Towd, which Towd [which part
of Towd] is a little cove above the wading-place
[at Towd]." Again, Nov. 26, 1738: "And ye
road leading from ye wading-place at Towd to
Sag Harbor" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 209; vol. iii., p.
94). Variations are: Towde, 1728; Toude, 1747.
Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, in a letter to Win.
S. Pelletreau, suggests that Towd is an abbrevia-
tion of Towadena, "a low place between hills."
This he gets from comparison with the Chippewa
(Baraga) towadena, "a valley," etc. I must
reject this derivation, for the early records, as
will be seen above, refer to a "wading place."
Towd was the general name given to the locality
(as it is to-day) near the "going over." I there-
fore consider Towd to be related to the Delaware
town, "to ford," "to wade over." See Towa-
427. TOYONGE: Red Creek, at the head of
Peconic Bay, Southampton town. The same
creek in the Indian deed of 1648 is called Mash-
manock. Paucamp, the old Sachem, said in
May, 1660 (he was then aged about 80), "that
Occabauke was an antient seate of sachemship,
and of long standing, that is to say time out of
mind, but the first in his time did possesse the
On Long Island 261
Upland and Meadow on the swamp side of the
head of the River being in the west end of the bay,
five creekes, the fifth Toyoungs, being the out
Bounds thereof" (Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p. 210,
Office of the Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.).
Variations are: Toyonge, 1665; Toyoung, 1667;
Toyongs, 1676; Toyong, 1682, etc. This name
signifies "a ford," or "wading-place, " and is
called "the wading-river " in some of the early
records. It corresponds to the Massachusetts
(Eliot) tc&skeong, "a ford" (Delaware towin, "to
ford"; tschosin, "to wade"); Narragansett toyusk,
"a bridge" (also Narragansett toceketuck, "let us
wade"). Heckewelder has in Delaware, tohickon,
"stream over which we pass by means of a
bridge of driftwood. " See Towd.
428. TUCKAHOE: a level tract of land, and a
school district, three miles north of the village
of Southampton. The locality derives its name
from a plant formerly gathered in the vicinity by
the Indians, the tubers of which were used for
food by the Indians. The plant is known to
botanists as Arum tryphyllum (Willd.) commonly
called ' ' Jack - in - the - Pulpit, " " Wake-Robin, ' '
"Indian Turnip," etc. It is found in all parts
of the U. S. growing in damp woods, in swamps,
along ditches, and in other moist shady places.
Capt. John Smith says: "The chiefe root they
have for food is called Tockawhough. It groweth
262 Indian Place-Names
like a flagge in Marishes. In one day a Salvage
will gather sufficient for a weeke. These roots are
much of the great nesse and taste of Potatoes.
They use to cover a great many of them with oke
leaves and Ferns, and then cover all with earth
in the manner of a Cole-pit; over it, on each side,
they continue a great fire 24 hours before they
dare eat it. Raw it is no better than poyson and
being rosted, except it be tender and the heat
abated, or sliced or dryed in the Sunne mixed
with sorrell and meale or such like, it will prickle
and torment the throat extreamly and yet in
sommer they use this ordinarily for bread" (Gen.
Hist, of Virginia, 1624, Book ii, pp. 26, 27).
Trumbull says: "Tuckahoe takes its name from
one or another of the larger 'round' (Massachu-
setts p'tuckwe) roots. The common tuckaho of
Virginia (tockwhogh as Capt. John Smith wrote
the name, toccaho and tockowhough of Strachey)
was the root of the Golden Club or Floating Arum
(Orontium aquaticum) . 'It groweth like a flag
in low, muddy freshes' (Strachey). In New
Jersey and Pennsylvania the name seems to have
been specially appropriated to a sort of truffle
or subterranean fungus (Pachyma cocos Fries.),
popularly called 'Indian loaf.' Several localities,
creeks, etc., in various parts of the country retain
the name of Tuckahoe; e. g., Tuckahoe Creek and
village, Cape May Co., N. J. ; Tuckahoe Hill,
Yonkers, N. Y., another Tuckahoe Creek, Jones Co.,
On Long Island 263
N. Y. ; another in Maryland, etc. One of the
most amusing of Mr. Heckewelder's etymologies
is that by which the name of Tuckahoe Creek,
Ind., "is derived from 'Tuchahowe, deer are shy,
difficult to come at; also Tuchauchsoak, the place
where deer are very shy'!" (Mag. Amer. Hist.,
June 1877, p. 386).
429. TURKOM: a small point or neck of land
between two small creeks near Menantic Neck,
Shelter Island. The name is traditional and
known only locally. I have been told by a for-
mer owner that it is not Indian but a corrup-
tion of "Turkey-man," the English name of an
Indian residing there.
430. UNCAWAMUCK : a creek in Riverhead town.
Mentioned in the Indian deed of March 14, 1648,
viz. : "The whole tract of Land commonly called
Ocquebauck, Bounded on the East with the Creeke
Uncawamuck which is the neck creek to the place
where ye Canoes are drawn over to Mattituck"
(Book of Deeds, vol. ii., p. 210. Office of the
Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). The name
Uncawamuck signifies "the further fishing-place."
The components of the word are uncaiva, cor-
responding to Massachusetts (Eliot), ongkoue,
"beyond," "further"; -amuck, "fishing-place."
See Unkawa, Unkechaug.
264 Indian Place-Names
431. UNCHENCHIE: given as one of the names
of Shelter Island as follows:
Where is the chief of Unchenchie the while?
I saw the watch light on the Sheltering Isle;
Look over Neapeague's far desert of sand,
Cometh he not with his warrior band?
Ayres's Legends of Montauk, 1849.
(Note : "Unchenchie = one of the names of Shelter
This is a mistake of Mr. Ayres. It was the
Sachem of Shelter Island that was formerly
called Unchenchie, as proven by the following:
"Witnesseth that whereas James ffaret Esq.
Deputie was by purchas from Unchenchie,
Sachem of Pammanuck possest of Manhansuck
being a member of Long Island called Pam-
manack and whereas Yoko Sachem of the said
Menhansack, formerly called Unchenchie Acton-
cocween" (Deed of 1656, E.H.R., vol. i.,pp. 96, 97).
432. UNCKACHOHOK: a form of Unkechaug.
This form of the name is found in the Indian
release of 1703, viz.: "Wee namely Ginagonhut
Sachem of Unckachohok and Sumono his sister,
wife of Pomgomo Sachem of Shinnecock, etc."
(S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 179). See Unkechaug.
433. UNCOHONG, Uncohoug: a variation of
Unkechaug found in certain histories of Long
Island. See Unkechaug.
On Long; Island 265
434. UNKAWA, Unkaway: neck of land partly
in towns of Babylon and Oyster Bay. Mentioned
in the record of the boundary between Huntington
and South Oyster Bay, Sept. 5, 1795, viz. : "Then
running to the west part of one of the Branches
of Masapague swamp ... so down about the
middle of Unkawa to or near a tree the southside
of the Highway that leads across the neck"
(H. R., vol. iii., p. 128). Again in a deed of 1823:
"Toward the middle of a large grove or clump of
walnut trees on Unkaway neck" (vol. iii., p. 311).
The same name is met with in Uncowa, or Uncoa,
Fairfield, Conn. Unqua is another form of the
word and it appears as an adjectival prefix to
many Indian local names. The neck was so-
called because it was iinkawa, corresponding to
Massachusetts ongkoue (Eliot) "the furthermost,"
neck, either of the two towns. See Uncawamuck,
435. UNKECHAUG : a neck of land in the Manor
of St. George, Mastic Neck, Brookhaven town.
On this neck was located the village of the Sachem
Tobacus and of the Sachems that followed him,
although the name became tribal afterward. In
the first Indian deed for land on the southside,
1664, we find: "This indentor wetnesseth a bargin
or agreement, between the Sachem of Unchachage
Tobacus, and the inhabetance of Brookhaven else
Setak" (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 10). Variants are:
266 Indian Place-Names
Unquachack, 1664; Unkachauk, 1667; Unkechage,
1670; Unkechake, 1674; Graham's Survey, 1693,
Unquachock, etc. The village site is what gave
rise to the name, being located beyond a hill as
one approaches it from the east. The word is
compounded from ongk ( = ongkoue, in Eliot),
"beyond," "utmost," "further," etc.; wddchu
in composition -adchu, "a hill"; -auke, "land,"
"place." Thus we get Ongk-adch-auke, "land
or place beyond the hill." See Uncawamuck,
Uncohong, Unckachohok, Unkawa.
436. UNQUA: a trout stream between Amity-
ville and South Oyster Bay, belonging to the
Floyd- Jones estate. This form of the word,
Unqua-, Unkawa-, etc., occurs occasionally as a
prefix to some Indian place-name. The creek
probably takes its name from the neck Unkawa
through which it flows. See Uncawamuck, Unkawa,
437. UNSHEMAMUCK : fresh pond, on the bound-
ary between Smithtown and Huntington. The late
L. Lawrence Smith in his "Notes on Smithtown,"
in Munsell's Hist. S. C. , remarks : " It is no longer
a pond, it has all grown up to meadow." The
final decree settling the boundary between the
two towns in 1675, gives the following: "From
the west most part of Joseph Whitman's hollow
and the west side of the Leading hollow to the
On Long Island 267
fresh pond Unthemamuck" (H. R., vol. i., p. 214).
Variations are: Unsheamuk, 1665; Unshemamuck,
1677; Unchemau, 1677; Unshemamuke, 1688;
Osha-mamucks, 1694, etc. This name denotes
"an eel fishing-place" and is probably the same
as Onshaukamaug, a locality in Windsor, Conn.,
which Dr. Trumbull translates as "a fishing-place
for eels, or lampreys (Delaware schachamek,
'an eel,' from oushacheu), 'smooth, slippery';
schachameki, 'the place for eels,' (Heckewelder's
Indian Names}' 1 ; Chippewa (Baraga) ojdsha,
"it is slippery." This primary meaning of the
name seems to have been overlooked by the Rev.
S. A. Anthony in the Lendpe Dictionary edited
by Dr. D. G. Brinton, who derives it from "a
straight fish." I am inclined to think Trumbull
correct in this instance. Roger Williams men-
tions three names for eels in the Narragansett
and of two of them Dr. Trumbull writes:
" Nquitte' connau (nequttika, Cotton), plur. nquitte'-
connauog, 'they go one by one or singly,' Neeshau
(Pequot neesh, Stiles), plur. neeshau' og 'they
couple or go in pairs.' Comp. Abnaki nis-
sG>ak, Us sont maries (Rale). In the former
name we have a trace of the belief once universal,
as old at least as the days of Aristotle, and
which not even Sir Thomas Browne ventured to
reject as a vulgar error that the eel was without
distinction of sex. The name 'neeshau, eel,' is
still retained for a species or variety which is
268 Indian Place-Names
occasionally taken in the salt ponds of Martha's
Vineyard, and which Dr. Storer supposed to be
the Silver Eel (Mur&na argentea, Le Sueur; Rep.
on Fishes of Mass., p. 158). I cannot say whether
or not any peculiarity in the habits of this species
distinguishes it from the common 'single going'
eel, but the lampreys (Petromyzon Americanus,
Le Sueur) might with striking appropriateness
be named 'neeshau'og,' for they usually go in pairs,
and aid each other in constructing their breeding
places, and give frequent evidences of mutual
attachment" (Notes to R. Williams's Key, Narr.
Club Reprint). At certain seasons of the year
eels enter these ponds for breeding and are de-
tained in the ponds by the closing of the inlets,
and as soon as the opening is made they leave
the pond and are caught by the thousands.
438. WAGASPOR: a creek in the Flatland
meadows, King's County. The derivation of the
word is uncertain.
439. WAINSCOTT: a post-office and R. R.
station in East Hampton town. The name was
first applied to a sheet of water still known as
Wainscott pond. The earliest record found is
dated 1652, when it was ordered "that a cart-way
shall be laid out to Wainscott where it may be
most convenient" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 22).
This name is not aboriginal although commonly
On Long Island. 269
supposed to be such. The pond took its name
from an ancient method of preparing "Wainscot
(oaken timber or boarding)" of which Josselyn
gives an account in his second Voyage to New
England, 1673, p. 61, "the ordering of red-oake
for Wainscot, when they have cut it down and
clear'd it from the branches, they pitch the body
of the tree in a muddy place in a river, with the
head downward for some time; afterwards they
draw it out; and when it is seasoned sufficiently
they saw it into boards for wainscot, and it will
branch out into curious works. " Wainscot was
an article of export from a very early period as
mentioned by many early writers. For a fuller
history of this name, see my essay on "Some
Supposed Indian Names of Places on Long
Island" (Long Island Mag., 1883, pp. 51-54).
440. WAINSKCUMUNCAKE : see Anuskkum-
441. WALLACE: "Indian Name of Woodbury,
Queen's Co." (De Kay). "The settlement in
North Hempstead, called Westbury, was pre-
viously denominated Wattage, by the natives"
(Paper on the "Indian Names of Long Island" by
B. F. Thompson, Proc. N. Y. Historical Society,
1845). Perhaps from a word related to the Dela-
ware waloh, "a ditch," "hole," "cave" (walheu,
' ' he digs a hole ") . B i inton and Anthony (Lendpe
270 Indian Place-Names
Diet., 1889) give walak or waleck, "a hollow or
442. WAMPMISSIC: a tract of land and a large
swamp in Brookhaven town, between Yaphank
and Manor stations on the Long Island R. R.
This tract of land was part of the Col. Wm.
Smith's patent for the Manor of St. George,
dated Oct. 5, 1693, consequently the name is not
found in the early records, and is therefore to a
great extent traditional. The earliest mention
that can be found is in a deed of April 2, 1828,
from the Smith heirs, to J. H. Weeks, for: "all
that tract [giving the entire boundaries] called
and known by the name of Wampmissic." The
name Wampmiss-ick signifies "place of chestnut-
trees." The components are wamp'miss=wom-
pimish [Narragansett], "a chestnut-tree"; wom-
piminineash, "chestnuts," literally "white nuts";
Delaware woapimininschi, " chestnut- tree "; -ick,
locative suffix. Trumbull says: "In the Massa-
chusetts or Natick dialect the locative affix was
-it, -at, or -ut; in the Narragansett it appears
to have been -ick, or -uck. This distinction was
not, however, uniformly observed; we have for
example keesaq-ut, 'to heaven'; sowwannak-it,
(not -ick} 'to the southwest.' " The late W. J.
Weeks, Esq., the then (Feb. 25, 1891) owner of
the tract and swamp, by letter gives the informa-
tion that: "The chestnut trees were chiefly
On Long' Island 271
in the swamp in the central portion of the tract;
they were killed by a great fire in the woods of
Brookhaven in 1 862 ; and he does not know whether
the sprouts came up to much extent from the
stumps, or not."
443. WAMPONAMON: the extreme eastern end
of Long Island at Montauk Point where the light-
house stands. This name is first found recorded
in the Indian deed of 1661, for the "Hither woods
tract," viz. : "Whereby we did fully and firmly sell
unto the said parties our neck of land . . . from
. . . Wompenanit, to our uttmost bounds west-
ward called Napeake" (Hedges's Address, 1848).
It appears also as Wompenoonot (Ranger's Deeds of
Montauk, 1850). In 1695, we find: "One fourth
part of one whol share of that tract of land at the
east end of the Island of Nassau stretching from
Womponoman Point Eastward unto Napeag
Beach Westward, commonly known as Meun-
taucut" (E. H. R., vol. ii., p. 331). Later the name
occurs as Wamponamon. This name, in its early
form, Wompenanit, signifies "at the east" or
"eastward." Cognate are Massachusetts Wom-
panniyeu, "the east (when daylight is) "; Abnaki,
Wampanoag, "the east land"; Delaware Wapan-
neunk, "east" or "on the east." Wompenanit
would appear, therefore, to be composed of the
word for "east" with the locative -it; while
Wamponamon would be the same or a similar
272 Indian Place-Names
word, with the suffix -onk, "place." Both names
would thus signify "at the east, " or "to the east. "
Wamponamon is also the name of Lodge No. 437,
F. and A. M., at Sag Harbor, a very suitable name
for those that hail from "the east. "
444. WANASQUATTAN : a locality in the western
part of Babylon town, near Amityville. Men-
tioned in a grant by the town of Huntington,
May 5, 1696, viz.: "Whereas Thomas Powell
did obtaine from Governor Dongan a Lissence
to Purchas of ye native proprietors of Masepague
on Long Island, two hundred acars of Land about
Wanasquattan on ye poynts against Massapeag
swampes heads" (H. R., vol. ii., p. 188). This
is one of the few instances where the aboriginal
name of a place appears with its signification
given. The name Wanasquatta, "point (or top)
of the hills" is composed of wannasq' correspond-
ing to the Delaware (Zeisberger) wanachquiwi,
"point"; Massachusetts (Eliot) wannasque,
"point," or "top" (Job xxiv., 24; Ezekiel xxi.,
15): -attan (adene, attiny), inseparable generic for
' ' hill " or " hills.' ' In Eliot we have Wanasquodin-
nunk, "in the top of the mountains" (Micah iv.,
i); Wanashquodinnuook, "tops of the mountains."
445. WANDOWENOCK: a locality at Newtown,
Queen's Co. "The eastern portion of the town
was known to the natives as Wandowenock"
On Long' Island 273
(Thompson's L. I., vol. ii., p. 137). De Kay
gives also Wandowenach. A similar name occurs
in Connecticut as Wad'-awan'-nuc, of which
Trumbull writes: "The true meaning of the
name has not been ascertained." I cannot do
446. WANTAGH: village of Ridgewood, Hemp-
stead; was changed at the request of the inhabi-
tants to Wantagh in 1891. Wantagh is a variation
of Wiandance. This form of his name appears on
the Hempstead confirmation of July 4, 1647, and
on the release of May n, 1658, as Waantauch,
(Thompson's L. /., vol. ii., pp. 9, 10; Col. Hist.
N. Y., vol. xiv., p. 416; Book of Deeds, vol. ii.,
Office of Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.). See
447. WARACTO : see Warratta.
448. WARRASKETUCK : a creek on the bounds
between South Oyster Bay and Babylon towns,
at Amityville. Andros's patent for Oyster Bay
town, Sept. 29, 1677, says: -"Beginning on the
east, at the head of Cold Spring Harbor, and
running a southward course across the Island to a
certain river called by the Indians, Warrasketuck,
etc.," (Thompson, vol. i., p. 488). Variations:
Wanasketuc, 1797; Waunskittuc, 1860; Narraske-
tuck, on some local maps. Allowing for the
274 Indian Place-Names
permutation of r and n, Warrasketuck represents
Wannasquetuck, "the ending or point creek,"
because the creek formed the southern end of the
boundary. The components of the word would
thus be wannasque, corresponding to Massa-
chusetts wanashque, "at the end of," "on the
top of"; -tuck, "tidal stream," "creek."
449. WARRATTA: a neck of land at Centre
Moriches, lying between Barnes's mill-pond (Ter-
rell's River) and the creek Senex, Brookhaven
town. On April 10, 1688, John Mahue, an Indian,
sells to Elias Doughty of Flushing, half the neck
Waraeta (Liber A, p. 25, of Deeds, Office of
County Clerk of Suffolk). " Warratta" occurs in
a deed from Col. Wm. Smith to Richard Smith,
dated March 15, 1702-3. Samuel Terrell (who
was the first white man to live upon it), in 1714,
names it " Waracto Neck" (S. R., vol. ii., p. 336).
As will be noticed, most of the Indian names of
necks of land on the southern border of Brook-
haven derive their appellations from the Indians
who formerly lived and planted thereon. So
with this name. Waraeta (Massachusetts wu-
nehteau; Cree wunnetou] signifies "he loses, or
forgets," "the loser" or "the forgetter."
450. WASPEUNK : a neck of upland on the east
side of Mastic Neck, in town of Brookhaven,
thus named on the Indian deed of April I, 1690,
On Long Island 275
to Andrew Gibb, viz.: "east by Sunkapogue Creek
and to Waspeunk or Squorums Neck. " Waspeunk
(Massachusetts ivusapinuk) signifies "to the edge,
bank, or margin of a stream. " See Musquatax.
451. WATCHOGUE: (a) a neck of land at East
Moriches, Brookhaven town. This neck con-
tains the east section of the village of East
Moriches, and is locally known as the "neck,"
bounded on the east by " Mattuck" brook and
west by a creek called "Pomiches." February
12, 1679: "Dr. Henry Taylor having received
liberty from the Governor Andros, October I,
1677, to purchase land on the southside of
Long Island associating with himself Major
Thomas Willets of Flushing, and Capt. Thomas
Townsend of Oyster Bay, purchased of the
Indian Mayhew the neck called Watchogue"
(Munsell's Hist. S. C.). Variants are: Watchauge,
1681; Watshage, 1697; Watchogue, 1882, etc.
(b) Watchogue: a neck of land in the town
of Islip, west of Bay Shore; Sept. I, 1701:
"The Indians sell to Thomas Willets two necks
of land called Manetuc and Watchogue, bounded
west by the river called Compowams, east by the
river called Watchogue, south by the salt bay and
to extend northward keeping the full breadth of
the said necks, as far as the north side of the
pines" (Thompson, vol. i., p. 447).
276 Indian Place-Names
(c) Watchogue: "a locality on Staten Island,
between Old Place and Chelsea, a level sandy
territory, sparsely populated, and where not cul-
tivated covered with a slender growth of pines
and cedars" (Clute's Annals of Staten Island, p.
228). Watchogue is Watch-auke, ''land on a hill,"
or "hill land," corresponding to Delaware Wacht-
schunk, "on a hill." The necks probably being
more hilly than other tracts in the same neighbor-
hood, perhaps a bluff or abrupt rising from the
creek or river. The name on Staten Island has
been transferred from some neighboring hill.
The name occurs in other parts of the country.
452. WATTUQUASSET : a small neck of land
lying on the southwest side of Great Pond,
Montauk, mentioned in the Indian deed of May
31, 1683, to John Osborne (recorded in Sessions
No. i, p. 134). The name Wattuquasset is re-
solvable into Wattuqua-es-et, "at or near the
poles"; probably the "poles" of a haystack.
Where the "haystack stood" is referred to in
another record for land in close proximity. The
components of the word are: Wattuqua, corre-
sponding to Massachusetts wuttuhq, "bough,"
"branch " ; -es-et, locative, " at or near. "
453- WAUBHEAG: a river or creek on Rock-
away Neck, Queen's Co. Mentioned in 1655,
viz.: "a certain tract of land, on ye west side of
On Long Island 277
Rockeway Neck, so running westward to a river
which river is called by the Indeans waubheag"
(Munsell's Hist. Queen's Co.). This name is
probably derived from an Indian who lived on
the banks of a river. One of a similar name lived
on a neck in Brookhaven town called "Wopehege
allis porridg Indien" (Brookhaven Rec., vol. i.,
454. WAUWEPEX: "The original settlement
on the west side of Cold Spring Harbor, Oyster
Bay, Queen's Co., was denominated by them
Wawepex" (Thompson, vol. i., p. 50). Also
occurs as Wauwepex. The name Wauwepex repre-
sents Waure-paug-es-it, "at the good little water-
place or pond. " The locality took its name from
some "good spring of water" as did probably the
English name of "Cold Spring." The components
of the word are wauwe ( = Massachusetts wunni,
or wirri), "good"; -paug, "pond" or "water-
place"; -es-it, "at or near." Pex (compare e.g.
Connecticut names in -poxet, etc.) often appears
as a corrupted form of the diminutive of -paug.
455. WECKATUCK: a neck of land, and a
running spring of water, at the foot of "Long
Beach," Southampton town, about three miles
from Sag Harbor, on the Noyack road. It is
frequently mentioned in the early records, first
in 1657, as follows: "Deposition of Mr. Richard
278 Indian Place-Names
Odell . . . the Sachems did not sett the bounds
of East Hampton in the covenant of the purchase
by reason of Job Sayer and my Standinge for the
bounds of Southampton but was left untill
Southampton men should make out their Lawfull
bounds, the Manhansett Sachem pointed to my
best rememberance about Wecutake spring for
the line to runne nere upon the South or upon
the South line" (E. H. R., vol. i., p. 136). Again
in 1680: "the meadow on the west side of
Wecatuck neck." Again in 1706: "By the ap-
pointment of ye proprietors of North sea pur-
chase was appointed John Lupton and George
Harris and Thomas Cooper to lay out nine lots
betweene ffaranteans point and Weckatuck spring
so-called upon Hog neck beach" (S. H. R., vol. ii.,
pp. 91, 145). Variations are: Weeckatuck, 1706;
Weckatuck, 1797. The site of an Indian village is
located within a short distance of this spring,
and it must have been a favorite resort of the
red-man, as it is to-day for the thirsty pedestrian.
This name is susceptible of two interpretations:
either, weque-tugk, "end of the woods or trees";
or weque-tuk, "end of the cove or creek." Both
significations will apply to the locality, Wecka-
tuck spring being at the "end of the woods,"
from any direction of approach, from Noyack,
Sag Harbor, or Bridgehampton. It is also at the
"head of the cove" from the same directions.
The first component in either case will be weque
On Long' Island 279
( = Massachusetts uhqude), "end"; the -tugk of
Wequetugk will correspond to Massachusetts
m'h'tug (root, h'tug), "tree"; the -tuk of Wequetuk
is -tuck, "tidal stream," "creek."
456. WEEKEWACKMAMISH : a creek at the
hamlet, known as Southport, Southampton town.
It is now called "Mill Creek" and empties into
the Peconic Bay. It is designated by its Indian
name in the testimony of Paucamp taken down
in 1660, who gave the names of five creeks:
"The fourth Weekewackmamish" (Book of Deeds,
vol. ii., p. 213, Office of the Sec'y of State, Albany,
N. Y.). In the deposition of Rev. Thos. James,
Oct. 1 8, 1667, acting as interpreter, we find the
following reference to this locality, viz.: "And
that in those tymes the bounds of thefe Akkobauk
Indians came Eastward of the river Pehik konuk
to a creek which she named, And they gathered
flags for Matts within that tract of land" (E. H.
R., vol. i., p. 261). The name denotes "a place
where the Indians gathered or cut reeds, rushes,
or flags, " of which they made their mats, baskets,
etc. The components of the word are weekewack =
Massachusetts weekinaque (Eliot), "reeds " ; Narra-
gansett wekinash (Williams), "reed"; -mamish
= Narragansett manisimmin, "to cut," or "to
mow"; Virginian (Strachey) manisc, "to cut."
Altogether, "where we cut reeds."
280 Indian Place-Names
457- WEEPOOSE: name of a little brook in
Islip town, also known as Keemiscomock (Bayles's
Hist. Suffolk Co.}. I have been unable to learn
anything further in regard to it. It may be the
same as Seapoose, "little river." See Seapoose.
458 . WEGONTHOTAK : a river or creek on Mastic
Neck, Brookhaven town. This name appears in
the early records once only, then in the Indian
deed for meadows at Mastic Neck, 1657, viz.:
"This writing testifyeth that Wiandance the Men-
take Sachem have sold to Mr. Richard Woodhull
of Seatauke, two great necks of meadow, lying
from a River called Connecticut and so to a River
called Wegonthotak, eastward" (B. H. R., vol.
i., p. 92). It appears also as Wegonthotuck
(Munsell's Hist. S. C 1 .). The word is probably
a variation of the name appearing as Wanun-
gatuck, Waunungtatuck, Wenunguetuck, or Wongat-
tack in Connecticut, which Dr. J. H. Trumbull
translates as "at the bend, or winding of the
river." The components of the word are we-
gontho, corresponding to Delaware ivoakeu, Massa-
chusetts woonki, "crooked"; -tak (-tuck), "tidal
459. WEHAHAMIS : a small creek in the town of
Islip, mentioned in a deed of 1714, discovered by
O. B. Ackerly, Esq., as follows: "East of
Great River, and south east of Brickkiln Point,
On Long' Island 281
two small creeks or runnes of water, called
Wehahamis eastward and Essachias westward."
This name represents probably Wehquah-amis,
"the end tree or post," a boundary designation.
460. WERPOS: a locality in the present tenth
ward of Brooklyn. Mentioned in Kieft's patent,
dated May 27, 1640: "for a certain peice of land
upon the Long Island near Merechkawikingh about
Werpos" (Col. Hist. N. F., vol. xiv., p. 31). Ac-
cording to Schoolcraft, "Warpoes was a term be-
stowed upon a piece of elevated ground, situated
above and beyond the small lake or pond called
the Kolck (in New York City). This term is ap-
parently a derivation from Wawbose, a hare, a
rabbit," (N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll.). Schoolcraft is,
no doubt, in error in deriving this name from the
Chippewa wdbos, ' ' a rabbit. ' ' This name does not
occur in the eastern Algonkian languages, as the
name of that animal. Besides it would not
appear as the name of a place unless as the name
of an Indian residing there. I would suggest
its derivation as from a word corresponding to the
Delaware (Zeisberger) wipochk, "a bushy place, "
"a thicket." See Weepoose.
461. WESUCK: an abbreviation of Achabacha-
wesuck, a brook at Atlanticville, Southampton.
This name was evidently too difficult for the Eng-
lish to retain, so the first part was dropped and the
282 Indian Place-Names
brook became known as simply "Weesuck," or
" Wesuek" See Achabachawesuck.
4.62. WHOMESES: see Homes.
462a. WIANDANCE: see Wyandance.
463. WICKAPOGUE: a farming district at the
western end of Meacox Bay, Southampton town.
This name is first found in the division of land
of 1668, viz.: "Tho. Goldsmith at the end of
his home lot, the rest by goodman Halseys at
Weequapaug." Same date: "Mr. John Howell as
much as may be his owne at Weequapoug" (S. H.
R., vol. i., pp. 149, 150). Variations are: Weeka-
paug, 1681; Wecapoug, 1681; Wickapogue, 1739;
Wickapog, 1753. Trumbull says: "Wequa-paug
means 'at the end of the pond, water place.'
The prefix (Mass, wehquae, uhquae, as in wehqu-
ohke, 'end of the earth') signifies, primarily, 'as far
as,' 'to the extreme point, or limit of ' ; it is common
to all Algonkin dialects, as in Chip, waiekwa-
ketchigami, the name of Fond du Lac (Wis. and
Minn.), 'at the end of the great water' (Lake
Superior). A form of the same prefix is found
in the Mohegan name weexcodawa, for Mass.
wehqsM-, weekshik, 'it extends to,' 'goes as far
as, is the end.' In some place-names, wequae
or a derivative (Mass. a>hquae, ukquae, oohque)
denotes a 'point,' or ending of either land or water
On Long Island
(in a cove, harbor, or inlet). Comp. Chip.
wikweia, ' it forms a bay ' ; wikwe- (as prefix) ' in a
corner of (Baraga)." Wickobaug, the name of
the Indian village now West Brookfield, Mass,
(a pond in the western part of the village still
bears the name of Wickaboag), is the same word.
464. WICKAPOSSET : a point of land at Fisher's
Island, Southold town. "A small rocky island at
the east end of Fisher's Island, also Wecopesuck,
Wicapeset. For wehque-peasik, ' little thing at the
end' of the great island" (TrumbuH's Indian
Names in Connecticut}. This would correspond
to Massachusetts wehque, "as far as," "at the
end"; peasik (or peesik) "a small thing." See
465. WIGWAGONOCK, Wegwagonuck : that part
of Sag Harbor east of Division Street, belonging
to East Hampton town. The oldest inhabitant of
the town has no knowledge of the locality by this
name. For a long time the writer was unable
to locate it. It is referred to in the early records
some years previous to the settlement of the
village. According to a release dated 1698,
Joseph Stretton was left by his father: "a share
of that peice of meddow that Lyes nearest Hogg
Neck in this townes Bounds. " "On April 4, 1710,
Joseph Stretton chose his land going to his farther
284 Indian Place-Names
meadow towards the west bounds"; "April 30,
1711, "he chose his right in said division to be near
or joining to his meadow at Wegwagonuck," April 30,
1718, "it was agreed that all the land lying to the
westward of Joseph Stretton's meadow at Wegwago-
nock shall lie as common land forever all the
land lying between the bound line and the North-
side to the utmost limite of East Hampton
bounds"; in 1728, "Ananias Conkling Jr. entereth
his land joining his land at Wigwagonock near
the bound line"; in 1731, "Cornelius Conkling
receives an acre in exchange at same place"
(E. H. R., vol. ii., p. 4; vol. iii., pp. 241, 275, 382,
443 > 465). All of which proves the name to
belong to Sag Harbor. Conkling is perpetuated in
Conkling's Point, adjoining the meadows, which
were more extensive at that period than they are
to-day. The march of improvements, encroach-
ment of the sea, etc., have all contributed their
part toward obliterating what was once known
as the "Great Meadows" at Sag Harbor. The
bound line above mentioned is now Division
Street, which separated East Hampton from
Southampton. The name Wegwagonuck repre-
sents Wequae-adn-auke and means "place at the
end of the hill," probably the hill known as
"Sleights Hill. " The meadow was in close prox-
imity on the north, and extended at one time as
far west as "Bush Street," within three hundred
feet of the bound line at Division Street. At the
On Long Island 285
foot of this hill can bef seen the remains of an
extensive shell-heap, or village site. A large
part of its area has been carted away to fill up
the meadow adjoining and to lay out "East
Water Street." It was this Indian settlement
probably that gave the name to the locality.
The site of an Indian village at Sharon, Conn.,
was known by the same name, viz.: Wequadnack,
Wachquatnack, afterwards corrupted to Weguag-
nock. The components of the name are wegwa
( = Massachusetts wequde}, "end"; -adn, "hill";
466. WIGWAME: a swamp in the town of
Huntington. In 1695 there was: "Laide out
by the survaiers of the town of Huntington, a
highway beginning at the head of ye Wigwam
swamp." A note by C. R. Street, Esq., says:
"The 'wigwam swamp' here mentioned was
where the main part of Cold Spring village is now
located." Wigwam places are frequently named
in the early records. In 1640 a place in Southold
town was known as the "Five Wigwams" (see
Manhansuck). This word is common to many
Algonkian dialects. Trumbull has given us the
etymology of the name in connection with the
Narragansett form wetuomuck, viz.: "Wetu has
the form of a verb in the indicative, which may be
nearly translated by 'he is at home,' 'he houses.'
Wek, week (Eliot) is the regularly formed sub-
286 Indian Place-Names
junctive or conditional third person singular of the
verb 'when (or where) he is at home.' The
locative affix makes weekit (Eliot) or wekick, 'at
or in his home' (see Eliot's Grammar, p. II,
where the word wigwam is shown to be a corrup-
tion of weekuwout or wekuwomut, 'in his house,'
which is doubtless an error of the press for 'in
their house' as the word has the plural affix);
wetuomuck as Mr. Williams wrote it; Abnaki
wigvam, cabane, maison (Rale)" (Narragansett
Club Reprint of R. Williams's Key}.
467. WIMBACCOE : Bergen Island. See Winip-
468. WINCORAM: see Cor am.
469. WINGANHAUPPAUGE : a neck of land and a
brook in the village and town of Islip. The name
originally belonged to the brook or to its head
waters. It is sometimes called Champlain's
Creek. On Nov. i, 1686, Letters Patent were
issued to Wm. Nicoll for: "A certain parcel of
land and meadow ground unimproved and not as
yet granted to any person or persons whatsoever,
being bounded east, by lands of the said Wm.
Nicoll, south by the sound or bay, west by a
creek called Wingatthappagh, and north by a right
line from the head of said creek or river called
Wingatthappagh, 11 etc. (Book of Patents, vol.
On Long' Island 287
in., p. 603, Office of Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.).
On March 26, 1692, Gov. Ingoldsby granted to
Andrew Gibb of Queen's Co.: "A certaine tract
of vacant Land upon Long Island commonly
called and known by the name of Winganhappogue
Neck being Bounded on the East by Wingan-
happogue River, South by the Bay, West by the
Orewake River and North by a Right Line from
the head of Winganhappogue River," etc. (Book
of Patents, p. 372). In a mortgage dated Oct.
30, 1703, by Andrew Gibb to Wm. Richardson
we find: "All that neck of land . . . commonly
known and called by ye name of Wingan-
hoppogue neck or ye pleasant springs," etc.
(Abstract of the Title of Wm. Trist Bailey, etc.,
p. 1 88) . Variations are : Wingan Hauppauge, 1 773 ;
Winganhoppog, 1821. Wingatt, in the Nicoll pat-
ent, is probably an error of spelling. "Pleasant
Springs," as given in the Gibb's mortgage of
1703, is a free interpretation probably bestowed
by Gibb himself, who was more or less familiar
with the language of the natives, and was a
prominent man of that period. The components
of the name, according to this derivative, would
be wingan = " sweet," "savory," "pleasant to
the taste" ' = Narragansett weekan, "it is sweet";
Massachusetts weekon (Eliot), "it is sweet";
-happagh or -hauppaug, "the springs." This is
a free translation of a name that would be natur-
ally applied, as descriptive, to living springs that
288 Indian Place-Names
burst forth and spread their waters over the land ;
thereby creating boggy swamps and deceptive
quicksands. Its literal meaning, however, is
"flooded or overflowed land." In happaug, the
radical -du- means "to cover"; -pauk, -paug, a
generic term for a water- place. See Happauge.
470. WINGATTHAPPAGH : see Winganhauppduge.
471. WINIPPAGUE: Bergen Island, Jamaica
Bay. Also Wimbaccoe. The name denotes "a
fine water-place," from wini, "fine," -paug,
472. WINKET: a point of land in Huntington
town on the southern shore of Eaton's Neck
(see maps of the Island). This name is not In-
dian, but corrupted from "winkle, " as the mollusk
periwinkle (Pyrula canaliculata) is sometimes
called (H. R., vol. iii., p. 462). It was named
by the Indians meteauhock, "ear- shaped shell."
The wampum, or white money, was "made out
of the inmost wreaths " of the shell, or " of the stem
or stock, when all the shell is broken off " (Wood's
N. E. Prospect, Pt. II., ch. 3, and after p. 144).
These stems or whorls are quite plentiful in every
shell that dots the shores of eastern Long Island.
473- WINNECOMAC: hamlet in the eastern part
of Huntington town, and partly in Smithtown,
On Long Island 289
now abbreviated to Comae. In November, 1689,
the Secatogue Indians conveyed to John Skid-
more and John Whitman of Huntington a tract
of land: " known by ye name of Winne-comac
bounded on ye north side by Witmans Hollow;
running eastward by ye marked trees to ye head
of ye southwest branch of Nosoquog River; upon
ye East side upon a south line to ye pine plaine;
upon ye south side by ye pathward points of trees
to Huntington Patten joining on the west side to
Whitmans Hollow" (vol. i. of Deeds, Office of
Sec'y of State, 1692 to 1714, p. 101). Variations
are: Winnecomak, 1797; Winecomack, 1787; Weno
Comack, 1791; Wenecomack, 1795; Wenea-Com-
mack, 1812, etc. The name Winnecomac is de-
rived from winne = winni (varying in local
dialects to wirri, waure, willi, wee), "good, fine,
pleasant ' ' (Trumbull) ; -comae = Massachusetts
komuk (Eliot), "a house," "a place," "field," etc.
Winnikomuk, thus signifies "a pleasant field,"
' ' good land, " ' ' fine country. ' ' See Comae.
474. WINNECROSCOMS : neck of land in Brook-
haven town. One of the many necks of land into
which Mastic is divided. Graham's map, Sept.
J 9i J 693, gives them as follows eastward from
the Connecticut River, Seabamuck, Unquachock,
Ffloyds, Porigies, Ebwons or Snake Neck, Wino-
crosscombs, Mastic. On (probably) Aug. 6, 1684,
Samuel Eburn of Seatalcot petitions for a license
290 Indian Place-Names
to purchase "a neck of land called Snake Neck
on the southside of Long Island, bounded to the
east on Winnecroscombs Neck, to the west on the
head of Patter squas river" (Cal. of Land Papers,
Office of the Sec'y of State, Albany, N. Y.,p. 29).
In an Indian deed for roads, 1690, the name appears
as Wenacro scorns; again as Wenicroscoms. This
was the name of its Indian owner or dweller, his
name appears on the Indian deed for beach, in
1685, as Winecroscum (B. H. R., vol. i., p. 69).
See Minaussums for another early form, in 1690.
475. WISQUOSUCKS: a point of land on the
Connecticut River, Brookhaven town. The name
has for many years been abbreviated to Squas-
sucks. Wisquosuck, Wesquasesac, or Wisquassuck
was an Indian of the Unkechaug tribe who resided
on this point. See Squassucks.
476. WISSIQUACK: a corrupted form of Nisse-
quogue, Smithtown. On February 24, 1704,
Benj. Aske petitions the governor for a warrant
to survey a tract of land on the north side of
the county of Suffolk, on Wissiquack River. See
477. WONUNKE : neck of land at West Hamp-
ton, Southampton town. The two necks of land
lying east of Beaver Dam River (Apocuck Creek)
were known as "Great" and "Little Wonunk. "
On Long Island 291
"At a town meeting 1 68 1, it is agreed that all the
meadows as Assops Neck, Catchponack, Potunk,
and Ononke shall be layd out to every man in-
terested there" (S. H. R., vol. ii., p. 88). Varia-
tions are: Onunk, 1683; Wonunk, 1686; Wononck,
1738; Wonnonch, 1738; Wononke, 1738; Wonock,
!738; Onuck, 1739; Onach, 1742; modernly Onuck.
This name as a prefix occurs in Connecticut
Wonunkapaukook = wonunki-paug-ohke, "land at
the bend or turning of the pond" (Trumbull).
Here wonunke means simply "the bend" of
either land or water. The above necks are
indented by two coves that put in from the bay.
The radical is seen in Massachusetts woonki,
"it bends," "it is crooked"; Delaware woakeu;
Chippewa wagina, etc.
478. WOORUSKHOUSE : a place frequently men-
tioned by Rev. Azariah Horton, in 1741-3, as being
three miles from West Neck, now in the town of
Babylon. The orthography is quite uniform. It
is possibly meant for Wanasque-auke, "a point
of land" (from wanasque, "at the end of";
-auke, "land"). See Horton 's Journal.
479. WOPOWOG: Stony Brook, Brookhaven
town. "Known formerly by the Indian name
of Wopowog" (Thompson, vol. i., p. 343). This
name is found in Connecticut as Weepowaug,
Wopowaug, Wypewoke, etc. It designates land
292 Indian Place-Names
"at the narrows" of a river or cove, and usually
"the crossing place," weepwoi-auk. The diminu-
tive, "at the little crossing place," is found in
Wepoiset, the narrows of Kekamuit River in Bristol,
R. L, and in Weybosset, formerly Wapwayset,
Providence (Trumbull). Our Wopowog probably
designates the crossing over the brook now covered
by a bridge. Eliot has weepwoiyeuut (i Sam. xiii.,
23), "in the passage (between two places)."
480. WUCHEBEHSUCK : a valley on the east
side of the "North Neck," Montauk, East
Hampton town. The outlet of a small flaggy
pond and swamp flows through the valley at
certain seasons of the year. This name is recorded
in the Indian deed of 1670, and in the documents
relating to the same. The tract covered by this
grant was formerly known as the Wuchebehsuck
purchase, later as the nine-score acre purchase, or
the land between the ponds. The deed gives us:
"By us the fors'd parties Wuchebehsuck, a place
by the fort pond, being a Valley Southward from
the fort Hill to Shahchippitchage, being on ye
North side ye s'd Land, midway between the
great pond and fort pond, so on as straight line
to Chebiakinnauhsuk, from thence to a swamp
where the hay stacks stood, called Mahchongit-
chage, and so through the swamp to the great
pond, then straight from the hay stacks to the
great pond, so along by the pond to a place called
On Long Island "293
Manunkguiaug, on furthest side the reeds growing
on ye South End of the great pond Eastward, and
so along to the sea side to a place called Chop-
pauhshapaugausuck, so straight from thence to the
South Sea" (Hedges's Address, 1849, Appendix,
p. 85). All the aboriginal names in the above
deed, as previously given in this work, are boun-
daries simply. This one is no exception. Wuche-
behsuck represents Wut-chebeh-suck, "at the brook
of separation," or "at the bound-mark brook,
or outlet." The components are: wuch=wut
(Eliot), "at or on"; chebeh = chachabe, or chadchabe
(Eliot), "that which divides or separates"
(chabenuk in Eliot, ."a bound-mark"); -suck,
"a brook" or an "outlet of a pond." Atchau-
benuck, the southeast corner bound of Quinebaug
lands in Connecticut is probably of the same
481. WYAMAUG: a point of land at Jamesport,
Riverhead town. This name is found early
in the records as Miamogue and Miamegg, and
it is probably an error in spelling, although in
this form it resembles Weraumaug Lake on the
northwest border of New Preston, Conn., which
Trumbull translates as "a good fishing-place,"
from wirri, "good"; -amaug, "fishing-place."
482. WYANDANCE: the locality known as West
294 Indian Place-Names
Deer Park, on the L. I. R. R. in the town of
Babylon, was changed to Wyandance on Jan. I,
Wyandance was the Sachem of Paumanack after
the death of his elder brother in 1652. On the
heights of Montauk was located his palisadoed
village. Always the friend of the white settler,
it is fitting that his name should be perpetuated
in some part of his domain. The fact that it
was considered necessary by the early settlers
of the various middle and western towns of the
Island to have his sign manual afHxed to the
deeds given by the resident Indians, seems to
have evoked some detrimental comments thereon.
Some think that Lyon Gardiner pulled the
string, and the Sachem danced to it, but it was not
so. These writers ignore, or else did not know
of the agreement of 1645, by which the four
confederated Sachems of Paumanack, all brothers,
took these weak tribes under their care and pro-
tection (see Mochgonnekonck} . This was done
at the request of the tribes, and in doing it the
Sachems naturally acquired a right to have a say
in the disposal of these lands, which our ancestors
understood and recognized. Besides all this, the
signification of his name shows the estimation
in which his opinion was held by his own and
adjoining tribes. The variations in spelling are:
Weandance, 1642; Wiantanse or Wiantance, 1644;
Weyrinteynich, 1645; Wyandanch, 1648; Wain-
On Long' Island 295
dance, 1657; Wyandance, 1657; Wyandack, 1659;
Wayandanch, 1659. Lyon Gardiner's Relation has
Waiandance. The name Wyandance is derived from
waian- or wayan = wauontam (he is) wise; Massa-
chusetts waantam (Eliot), "wise"; waantog,
"wise"; -dance, -danch, or -fowce = Narragansett
taunche, "to tell (something)," "to speak out."
As a whole, Wayan-taunche, "the wise speaker or
talker," from whom we could learn something.
Compare the Delaware wewoatangik, "wise man";
wewoatank, "a sensible man," Micmac (Rand).
483. WYNYCOMIC: see Winnecomac.
484. YAPHANK: a village in Brookhaven town.
The name was originally applied to a creek some
distance south of the hamlet. In Tobacus's deed
for land on south side, June 10, 1664, it was
bounded: "on the Easte with a river called
Yamphanke." An Indian deed for Yamphank
Neck, Nov. 13, 1688, bounds it "on the south by
a smale River called Yamphank." Fletcher's
patent to Wm. Smith, Oct. 5, 1693, is: "for
land formerly purchased from the Indians, we
find the bounds are to a creek running out of
the said river [Connecticut] called Yaphank and
soe along the south west bank of ye sd creek unto
its head the whole creek included" (B. R. H.,
vol. i., pp. n, 71, 78). Variations are : Yemkhamp,
1738; Yamphank, 1745. The name Yaphank or
296 Indian Place-Names
Yamphank, denotes "the bank of a river," and
is the equivalent of the Delaware yapeechen,
yapewi, "on the river bank or edge of the water"
(Micmac ydtkamkek, "the bank of a river").
So-called because the creek bounded the above
tract of land along its whole length.
485. YATAMUNTITAHEGE: see Tatamucka-
486. YENNICOCK: the supposed Indian name
of the locality where the village of Southold is
situated. It is first mentioned in a deed dated
October 25, 1640, viz.: "Be it known unto all
men by these p'sents that I Richard Jackson of
Yennacock, Carpenter my heires, executors and
assigns doth sett or assigne and make over to
Thomas Weatherly marriner, his heirs, executors
or assigns his dwelling house and all app'tennces
thereunto belonging" (S. R., vol. i., p. 113).
Variations are: Yennycok, 1642; Yennicok, 164.2;
Yenycott, 1643; Yennicock, 1643; Yenicott, 1644;
Yeanocock, 1644; Yannocock, 1667; Yeannecock,
1668. The above dwelling house in another entry
is said to have been on "Hashamomuk neck,"
but it was really on what is now known as
Pipe's Neck. Charles B. Moore, Esq., in his
address at the Southold Celebration, August,
1890, derived this name from the old Sachem of
Shelter Island, Yoco, Youghcoe, etc. There is,
On Lon; Island 297
however, no identity between the two names.
Yennicock belonged to the whole of that tract of
land extending from Peconic River to Plum Gut,
the same as Montauk belonged to the whole
tract of that peninsula, for the name was applied
to those Indians that formerly planted at Aque-
bogue, as well as to those living in other parts
of this tract. The name Yennicock or Yeannecock
parallels a Massachusetts Yeanni-auk-ut, from
yeanni, "extended," ''stretched out," with the
locative affix -cock=auk-ut. The word thus
signifies "at the extended land or country."
This applies well to this large tract of land on
which it was bestowed. Besides this, the early
mention of the name in the records of the mother
colony at New Haven seems to designate the whole
tract under the jurisdiction of that colony and
not any particular settlement. There is absolutely
no proof that Southold existed as a settlement
in October, 1640, and that the statement that
Richard Jackson was of Yennicock simply re-
ferred to the fact that his house and land were
part of this "extended country" and that he
never lived at what is now known as Southold.
LIST OF ALGONKIAN NAMES SUITABLE FOR COUN-
TRY HOMES, HOTELS, CLUBS, MOTOR-BOATS, ETC.
ADCHA'ENIN, "one who goes a hunting." (Also
ADCHA'UKOMA, "hunting house."
ANA'SKAME'SET, "tree that bears acorns."
ANO'CKQUS, "a star."
ANWO'HSIN, "he rests."
APWO'NNAH, "an oyster."
ARRA'X " gull."
AWE'PESHA, "it calms."
CHE'CKEPU'CHAT, "the wild cat," an Indian so
CHE'KHAMPO'G, "he sweeps the water."
CHE'PEWI'SSIN, "northeast wind."
CHIKKU'PEMI'SET, "at the cedar tree."
JI'SKHAMPO'G, "he wipes up the water."
KEHCHI'PPAM, "on the shore."
KE'HTOH, "the sea."
KITO'MPANI'SHA, "break of day."
KO'DTOHKE, "top of the land."
30O Indian Place-Names
KO'GKENU'PPE, "go quick."
KO'UAMI'SET, "at the pine tree."
KUPPO'HKOMA, "a grove," i.e., "shut-in place."
KUPPO'MUK, "a haven."
KUSSI'TCHUAN, "rapid stream."
KUTSHA'MUNAT, "the lightning."
MACHI'PSCAT, "a stony path."
MA'SSATUK, "a great tree."
MA'UCHETAN, "ebb tide."
MAUTA'BON, "daylight," or "morning."
ME'TWEE, "poplar tree."
MISHA'NNEK, "a squirrel."
MISHA'NNOCK, "morning star, " i.e., "great star. "
MISHA'UPAN, "a great wind. "
MISHO'ON, "a canoe."
MISHQUA'TUK, "cedar tree," i.e., "red tree."
MI'SSITTO'PU, "great frost."
MO'GEWE'TU, "a great house."
MO'GGETUK, "a great tree."
MOGKE'KOMA, "a great house."
MO'HKUSSA', "burning coal."
MO'NUNKS, "ash tree."
MUCKQUE'TU, "he is swift."
MUNNA'NNOCK, "the moon," i.e., "wonderful
NEPA'NON, "a shower."
NEPA'UZ, "the sun."
NE'TOP, "my friend."
NICKQUE'NUM, "I am going."
Appendix I 301
NO'TAMI'SET, "at the oak tree."
NO'TTOMOG, "a mink."
NUNNA'KOMA, "on the shore," i.e., "dry place."
O'PENOCK, "the marten" (Mustela Americana}.
OUSA'MEQUIN, "yellow feather, " one of the names
of the famous Indian Massasoit.
OUW'AN, "the mist."
PA'PONE'TIN, "west wind."
PE'HTEAU, "it foams."
QUA'NNACUT, "the rainbow," i.e., "long mantle."
SO'CHEPO, "the snow," i.e., "it snows."
SOHSU'MO, "glory," i.e., " it shines forth. "
SOWA'NISHIN, "south wind," i.e., " the wind blows
from the south."
SO'WANO'HKE, "the south-land."
SUNNA'DIN, "north wind."
TAMO'CCON, "a flood tide."
TAPA'NTAM, "enough minded," or "it satisfies."
TA'PAPI'MIN, "room enough."
TOUWU'TTIN, "south wind."
USHPUN'WISQ, "he lifts the cup."
WAMPMI'SET, "at the chestnut tree."
WAMSU'TTA, "he has a kind heart," name of an
Indian (eldest son of Massasoit).
302 Indian Place-Names
WECHE'KUM, "the sea."
WE'NAUWE'TU, " well housed. "
WISA'TTIMI'SET, "at the red-oak tree."
WO'DDISH, "a nest."
WOPA'TIN, "east wind."
WO'SOWA'NCON, "a rose."
WUNA'UQUIT, "evening. "
WU'NNEOTA'N, "good town."
WUNO'HKE, "good ground."
WUSA'BANUK, "bank," "bluff," or "margin."
WUSKA'UKOMA, "grove," i.e., "new place."
WUSKA'WHAN, "a pigeon."
WUSSE'MO, "he flies."
WUSSE'NTAM, "he goes a-wooing."
WU'SSOQUATOMI'SET, "at the walnut tree."
WU'SSUCKHO'SICK, "writing-house. "
WUTTA'HMIN, "strawberry," i.e., "heart berry."
WUTTA'NHO, "a staff."
WY'BENETT, "the wind," an Indian so named.
YOVA'WAN, "midst of the mist."
Note. Except in a few cases, the accents have been
added to these words by the editor. All of the
names belong to the Massachusetts (Natick) and
Narragansett dialects. The correct accentuation of
some words is a matter of doubt, as the Indians them-
selves varied in these matters not a little.
A. F. C.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO ALGONKIAN
By WILLIAM WALLACE TOOKER
CORRESPONDING MEMBER BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND
SCIENCES. CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE NUMISMATIC
AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY OF PHILADELPHIA. MEMBER
OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. A
FOUNDER OF THE AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION.
ONE TIME FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, AND SECRETARY OF THE SECTION
OF ANTHROPOLOGY, ETC.
1. Indian Geographical Names on Long Island. In Brooklyn
Daily Eagle Almanac, vol. iii., pp. 55-56, Brooklyn, 1888.
About 100 names, alphabetically arranged, with mean-
2. Indian Place-Names on Long Island, revised and corrected.
In Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, vol. iv., pp. 25-26,
Brooklyn, 1889. About 175 names alphabetically ar-
ranged, with meanings.
3. Indian Place-Names on Long Island, revised and corrected.
In Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, vol. v., pp. 35-37,
4. Indian Place-Names in East-Hampton, Long Island, with
their Probable Significations. In Records of the Town of
East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk Co., N. Y. (Sag
Harbor, 1889). An alphabetical list of 28 names in the
Montauk language, with meaning and analysis . . .
Issued separately, as next title below.
304 Indian Place-Names
5. Indian Place-Names in East-Hampton Town, with their
Probable Significations, written for the East-Hampton
Town Records, vol. iv., Sag Harbor, J. H. Hunt, printer,
Cover title as above, inside title as above, verso blank; 1.,
text, pp. i-x.
6. Indian Place-Names on Long Island, and Islands Adjacent,
with their probable significations. Present Publica-
7. Notes to the Address of Hon. Henry P. Hedges. In Address
delivered at the celebration of the 2$oth anniversary of the
village and town of Southampton, June 12, 1890 (Sag
Harbor, N. Y., 1890). Also few Indian names passim,
with translation of Peconic. J. H. Hunt, Publisher, Sag
Harbor, N. Y., 1890.
8. Some Indian Names of Places on Long Island, N. Y., and
their Correspondences in Virginia, as Mentioned by Capt.
John Smith, and Associates. Magazine of New England
History, vol. i., pp. 154-158, Newport, R. I., 1891.
9. The Name Massachusetts. Magazine of New England
History, vol. i., pp. 159-160, Newport, R. I., 1891.
10. Analysis of the claims of Southold, L. I., for priority of
settlement over Southampton, L. I., and how they are
disproved by the early records and contemporary manu-
scripts. Few Indian names, with their meaning given.
Magazine of New England History, vol. ii., pp. 1-16,
Newport, R. I., 1892.
Revised and read before joint meeting of Southampton
Colonial Society, and Sag Harbor Historical Society,
March 5, 1903.
1 1 . The Kuskarawaokes of Captain John Smith. The A merican
Anthropologist, vol. vi., pp. 409-414, Washington, D. C.,
1893. Reprinted in The Archaeologist, vol. i., pp. 248-
251, Waterloo, Ind., December, 1893.
12. Indian Names of Places in Brooklyn. Brooklyn Daily
Eagle Almanac, pp. 58-60, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1893.
13. The Name Susquehanna; Its Origin and Significance. The
American Antiquarian, vol. xv., pp. 286-291, Good Hope,
111., September, 1893.
Appendix II 305
14. Some Supposed Indian Names of Places on Long Island.
The Long Island Magazine, vol. i., No. 2, pp. 51-54,
Brooklyn, N. Y., 1893.
15. The Aboriginal Terms for Long Island. Brooklyn Daily
Eagle Almanac, pp. 39-41, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1894. Re-
printed in The Archaologist, Waterloo, Ind., vol. ii., pp.
1 6. The Algonquian Terms Patawomeke and Massawomeke.
The American Anthropologist, vol. vii., pp. 174-185,
Washington, D. C., 1894. Also reprint of 50 copies.
17. On the Meaning of the Name Anacostia. The American
Anthropologist, vol. vii., pp. 389-393. Washington, D. C.,
18. Some Indian Fishing Stations upon Long Island. This
paper is a study, with interpretations of some Indian
names of fishing places upon Long Island, N. Y., together
with some historical facts relating to the same, gathered
from early records and documents of the I7th century.
Read before Section H, American Association for the
Advancement of Science, at Brooklyn, August, 1894.
Printed in Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, pp. 54-57,
19. Roger William's Vindicated, or an Answer to a "Key-hole
for Roger Williams's Key." A reply to "A Key-hole for
Roger Williams's Key," by Wm. D. Ely, Providence, 1892.
Publications of the Rhode Island Historical Society, New
Series, vol. ii., No. i, pp. 61-67, Providence, 1894. Re-
plied to in publication of same society, vol. ii., pp. 189-
.196, by Wm. D. Ely.
20. The Key Fact versus Theory. A final answer to Wm.
D. Ely, Esq., Publication of the Rhode Island Historical
Society, New Series, vol. ii., No. 4, pp. 237-241, 1895.
Remarks by Dr. Amos Perry on same decision of Dr.
Daniel G. Winter.
21. The Discovery of Chaunis Temoatan of 1586. The Ameri-
can Antiquarian, vol. xvii., pp. 1-15, Good Hope, 111.,
1895. Also reprint of 100 copies. Also printed in
Brooklyn Daily Eagle and Sag Harbor Express, 1894,
shortly after being read before Section H of A. A. A. S.,
306 Indian Place-Names
at Brooklyn, August, 1894. Abstract in Proceedings
for that year.
22. The Algonquian Appellatives of the Siouan Tribes of Vir-
ginia, The American Anthropologist, vol. viii., pp. 376-392,
Washington, D. C., 1895. Read by the author before
Section H of A. A. A. S., at Springfield, Mass., August,
23. The Origin of the Name "Chesapeake." The Magazine of
Virginia History and Biography, vol. iii., No. I, pp. 86-88,
Richmond, Va., 1895.
34. The Mystery of the Name Pamunkey. American Anti-
quarian, vol. xvii., pp. 289-293, Sept., 1895. Also reprint
of 100 copies. Read before Section H of A. A. A. S.,
at Springfield, Mass., August, 1895.
25. The Name Chickahominy, its Origin and Etymology. The
American Anthropologist, vol. viii., pp. 257-265, Washing-
ton, D. C., 1895. Also reprint of 50 copies.
26. The Signification of the Name Montauk. Brooklyn Daily
Eagle Almanac, pp. 54-55, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1896. Read
before Section H of A. A. A. S., at Rochester, 1895.
27. Peculiarities of Some Indian Names of Places on Long
Island. Read before the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and
Sciences, March 25, 1895. Printed in full in Brooklyn
Daily Eagle, March 27, 1895.
28. The Bocootawanaukes, or the Fire Nation. The Archaeo-
logist, Columbus, Ohio, vol. iii., pp. 189-195. Concluded
on pages 253-260, 1895.
29. Louisquisset. Letter on the name, dated Nov. 17, 1894.
In Book Notes, Providence, R. I., vol. xii., No. 8, pp. 85-
30. John Eliot's (First Indian Teacher and Interpreter) Cocke-
noe de-Long-Island, and the Story of his Career, from the
Early Records, pp. 60, 8vo. Francis P. Harper, N. Y.,
1896. 215 copies printed. Read before the Suffolk
County, N. Y., Historical Society.
31. The Indian Village of Wegwagonock. In the Souvenir of
the Fair held by the Sag Harbor Fire Department, at
Masonic Hall, June 1-6, 1896. The 77th Anniversary
of the organization of the department. John E. Rowe &
.Appendix II 307
Son, Printers, Newark, N. J., pp. 27-31. A description
of the village, with translation of the name, and notices
of several other Indian place-names in the vicinity.
32. On the Derivation of the Name Manhattan. Brooklyn
Daily Eagle Almanac, pp. 279-283, 1897. Brooklyn, N. Y.
Read by Dr.W. J. McGee, in the absence of the author,
before Section H of the A. A. A. S., at Detroit, Mich.
33. The Significance of John Eliot's Natick. The American
Anthropologist, vol. x., pp. 281-287. Washington, D. C.,
1897. Also reprint of 50 copies.
34. Indian Geographical Names and why we should study them;
illustrated by some Rhode Island examples. An ab-
stract of a paper read before the Rhode Island Historical
Society, March 25, 1897. Publications of the Rhode
Island Historical Society, New Series, vol. v., No. 4, pp.
35. Translations of Some Indian Place-Names in the Town of
Barrington, R. I. In A History of Harrington, R. I., by
Thomas Williams Bicknell, pp. 9, n, 13, Providence,
36. Analysis and Meaning of Indian Geographical Names in
Smithtown, L. I. In Records of Town of Smithtown,
Long Island, N. Y. (edited by Wm. S. Pelletreau,
A.M., 1898), pp. 28-32 and 386.
37. The Name Sumpwams, and its Origin. In Silas Wood's
Sketch of the Town of Huntingdon, L. I. (edited by W. S.
Pelletreau, A.M.), pp. 58-59. Francis P. Harper, N. Y.,
38. Ashtabula and Conneaut (Letters on Indian Place-Names)
In The American Antiquarian, vol. xx., p. 372, 1898.
39. The Swastika, and Other Marks among the Eastern Algon-
quins. The American Antiquarian, vol. xx., pp. 337-
349, 1898, also reprint of 100 copies. Read before
Section H of the A. A. A. S. at Boston, August, 1898.
40. The Problem of the Rechahecrian Indians of Virginia. The
American Anthropologist, vol. xi., No. 9, pp. 261-270,
Washington, D. C., 1898. Also reprint of 50 copies.
Read before Section H of the A. A. A. S., at Boston,
308 Indian Place-Names
41. The Adopted Algonquian Term " Poquosin." The American
Anthropologist (N. S.), vol. i., pp. 162-170, 1899. Also
reprint of 50 copies. This paper was criticised by W. R.
Gerard in the "Notes and News" of the above quarterly,
vol. i., pp. 586-587. This was answered in the same
volume, pp. 790-791.
42. The Original Significance of "Merrimac. " The American
Antiquarian, vol. xxi., pp. 14-16, 1899.
43. Amerindian Names in Westchester County, N. Y. History
of Westchester County, Shonnard-Spooner, pp. 45-50,
1900. 50 reprints in galley proof.
44. The Algonquian Series. 10 vols., I2mo, N. Y., Francis
P. Harper, 1901. As follows:
1. Origin of the Name Manhattan. 75 pp.
2 . Indian Names of Places in the Borough of Brooklyn. 53 pp .
3. The Names Susquehanna and Chesapeake. 63 pp.
4. The Indian Names for Long Island. 49 pp.
5. The Algonquian Names of the Siouan Tribes of Virginia.
6. The Bocootawanaukes or the Fire Nation. 86 pp.
7. Some Indian Fishing Stations upon Long Island. 62 pp.
8. The Names Patawomeke and Massawomeke. 62 pp.
9. The Names Chickahominy, Pamunkey, and the Kuskara-
waokes. 90 pp.
10. The Significance of John Eliot's Natick, and the name
Merrimac. 56 pp.
45. Algonquian Names of some Mountains and Hills. Read be-
fore the A. A. A. S., Section H, December 30, 1902. The
Journal of American Folk-Lore, Boston, vol. xvii., pp. 171-
179, 1904. Reprint of 100 copies.
46. Indian Place-Names on Long Island. Revised and cor-
rected, from the Almanac of 1890. Brooklyn Daily
Eagle Almanac, 1904, pp. 409-410. List of names with
47. Derivation of the Name Powhatan. The American Anthro-
pologist, vol. vi., No. 4, July-September, 1904, pp. 464-468.
48. Book review. Remarks on the names Massasoit, Ousame-
quin, and Packanoket. The American Anthropologist,
vol. vi., No. 4, 1904, pp. 547-548.
Appendix II 309
49. Some Powhatan Names. The American Anthropologist,
vol. vi., No. 5, Oct.-Dec., pp. 670-694, 1905.
50. Meaning of Some Indian Names in Virginia. William and
Mary College Quarterly, vol. xiv., No. I, pp. 62-64, July,
51. Remarks on the Name Poughkeepsie, and Letter on Some
Neighboring Indian Names. The Eagle's History of
Poughkeepsie, by Edward Platt, 1905, pp. XIII-XV.
52. Some More about Virginian Names. The American
Anthropologist, vol. vii., No. 3, pp. 524-528, 1905.
53. The Powhatan Name for Virginia. The American Anthro-
pologist, vol. viii., No. I, pp. 23-27, 1906.
54. On the Name Missisquoi. Three Letters on the Name in A
Study of the Etymology of the Name Missisquoi, by George
McAleer, M.A. (The Blanchard Press, Worcester, Mass.,
1906), pp. 27-32. See the same with "Addenda," 1910.
55. The Meaning of Patapsco, and Other Maryland Geographic
names. Maryland Historical Magazine, vol. ii., pp. 287-
293, 1907. In a paper by the late Charles W. Bump.
56. A Perforated Tablet of Stone from New York. Illustrated
by the Author. Smithsonian Report, 1881, pp. 658-660.
57. Early License Laws. Brooklyn Times, April, 1888. See my
58. Anchannock or Robins Island. Sag Harbor Express, Jan.
19, 1888. (Article) S. B.
59. Cobb. . . . Origin of the Name. Sag Harbor Express,
March n, 1888. (Article) S. B.
60. Indian Fort on Montauk. Sag Harbor Express, March,
1888. (Article) S. B.
61. Indian Names on Long Island. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Dec.
21, 1888. (Letter) S. B.-
62. More Concerning Indian names, on Long Island. Suffolk
Bulletin, Jan. 1889. (Letter) S. B.
63. Things of the Past. Sag Harbor Express, March 20,
1890 (Letter) S. B.
64. Claims of Gardiner's Island, for Priority of English settle-
ment, etc. Sag Harbor Express, Jan., 1890 (Article) S. B.
65. Indian Nomenclature. Southside Observer (Letter), 1891
3io Indian Place-Names
66. Was Southampton, Long Island, Called by the Indians
Agawam? Sag Harbor Express, 1891. (Article) S. B.
67. Indian Relics of Long Island. Brooklyn Daily Eagle.
Lecture before the Brooklyn Institute for Arts and
Sciences, in 1891. (Article) S. B.
68. Indian Names on Long Island. Southside Signal, Jan. 1891.
(Letter) S. B.
69. Indian Name of Amityville. Southside Signal, Feb., 1892.
(Article) S. B.
70. Lake Nowedonah. Sag Harbor Express, March, 1889.
(Letter) S. B.
71. Local Indian Names. Southside Observer, 1892. (Letter)
72. Wantagh and Wyandance. Southside Observer, 1892.
(Letter) S. B.
73. Real Live Indians. Brooklyn Times, 1892. (Letter) S. B.
74. Plea for an Ancient Name. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1895.
(Letter) S. B.
75. Patchogue's Name, its Origin and Meaning. Patchogue
Advance, June, 1896. (Letter) S. B.
76. "Early Long Island, a Colonial Study." Notice of Miss
Flint's History. Sag Harbor Express, August 6, 1896.
77. Origin of the Name Syosset. Brooklyn Times, March 29,
1901. (Letter) S. B.
78. Maspeth's Ancient Name. Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March
19, 1899. (Letter) S. B.
79. Refugees from Sag Harbor in 1776. Sag Harbor Express,
(Article) S. B.
80. The Lost Colony of Roanoke. New York Sun, October
22, 1900. (Letter) S. B.
81. Early Sag Harbor Printers and their Imprints. Read
before the Sag Harbor Historical Society, January 2,
1902. Printed in Sag Harbor Express, January 23d and
30, 1902. S. B.
82. Rev. Robert Fordham, and his Place in History. Read
before Sag Harbor Historical Society, April i, 1902.
Sag Harbor Express, April 24, 1902.
WORKS OF OTHER WRITERS CITED WITH MORE OR
LESS FREQUENCY IN THIS VOLUME, AND OTHER
WORKS RELATING TO THE SAME OR SIMILAR
Ayres, J. A. Legends of Montauk, with an Historical Appen-
dix. Hartford, 1849. Pp. 127.
Bayles, R. M. Historical and Descriptive Sketches of Suffolk
County, etc., Port Jefferson, L. I., 1874. Pp- x ii-> I 3~4 2 4- 1
History of Richmond County (Staten Island) from its
Discovery to the Present Time. New York, 1887. Pp. 750.
Beauchamp, W. M. Indian Names of New York, etc.
Fayetteville, N. Y., 1893. Pp. 148.
Benson, E. Memoir Read before the Historical Society of the
State of New York, December 31, 1816.
Boyd, S. G. Indian Local Names, with their Interpretation.
York, Pa., 1885. Pp. x., 70.
De Kay, J. E. [A List of Indian Names of Places on Long
Island.] N. Y., 1851. Printed, but not published.
Flint, M. B. Early Long Island: a Colonial Study. New
York, 1896. Pp. 9, 459.
French, J. H. Gazetteer of the State of New York, loth ed.
Syracuse, 1861. Pp. 739.
Furman, G- Antiquities of Long Island to which is Added a
Bibliography, by Henry Onderdonck, Jr. Edited by
Frank Moore. New York, 1874. Pp- 47^- Also ed. of
Notes, Geographical and Historical, relating to the Town
of Brooklyn in Kings County on Long Island. Brooklyn,
1824. Pp. 116. Also reprint of 1865 and reprinted in
Antiquities of Rhode Island, 1875.
1 In The American Catalogue (N. Y., 1880) this book is given as published
312 Indian Place-Names
Gardiner, D. Chronicles of the Town of East Hampton,
County of Suffolk, New York. N. Y., 1871, pp. 121.
Gardiner, J. L. Montauk Vocabulary, taken down (March,
2 5 !798) from the lips of a Montauk chief. MS. in pos-
session of J. L. Gardiner of Gardiner's Island; also copy,
made by Wm. W. Tooker, in library of Bureau of American
Ethnology, Washington, D. C. This vocabulary of some
seventy words is printed in the following works:
Bayles, R. M. Historical and Descriptive Sketches of
Suffolk County (Port Jefferson, 1874), pp. 63-64.
Lambert, E. R. History of the Colony of New Haven
(New Haven, 1838,), p. 184.
Macauley, J. Natural . . . History of New York.
(Albany, 1829), p. 252.
Wood, S. Sketch of Long Island (Brooklyn, 1824),
Gowans, W. Bibliotheca Americana. Vol. i. Denton, D.
Brief Description of New York formerly called Nether-
lands, N. Y., 1845.
Hall, E. The Ancient Historical Records of Norwalk, Conn.,
etc. Norwalk, 1847. Pp. 320. Another ed. New York,
Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Ed. F. W.
Hodge. Washington, (Bureau of American Ethnology).
2 VOls. I907-I9IO.
Hedges, H, P. An Address Delivered on the 2Oth of December,
1849, on the Occasion of the Celebration of the Two Hun-
dredth Anniversary of the Settlement of the Town of East
Hampton, etc. Sag Harbor, L. L, 1850. Pp. 100.
Records of the Town of East Hampton, from 1639, etc.
4 vols. Sag Harbor, 1887.
A History of the Town of East Hampton, N. Y., etc. Sag
Harbor, N. Y., 1897. Pp. 5, 344, 10.
Howell, G. R. The Early History of Southampton, L. I.,
New York. With Genealogies. New York, 1866. Pp.
318. Second Edition, Revised, Corrected, and Enlarged.
Albany, 1887. Pp. viii., 473.
Jefferson, T, A Vocabulary of the Language of the Unquachog
Indians, who Constitute the Pusspatock Settlement in the
Appendix III 313
Town of Brookhaven, South Side of Long Island. MS.
(Copy by P. Duponceau) in the library of the American
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pa.), of Vocabulary of
150 words taken down in 1791.
(Vocabulary of the Long Island Language). Printed in
Gallatin's Synopsis of Indian Tribes, in Archaologia
Americana (Trans. Amer. Antiq. Soc.), vol. ii., Cambridge,
Mass., 1836, pp. 306-367.
Jones, N. fW. Indian Bulletin for 1867, No. I. New York,
1867. Pp. 16. Interpretation of Indian Names, pp. 13-16;
Long Island Names, pp. 13-14.
Indian Bulletin for 1868, No. 2, New York, 1868. Pp. 26.
Interpretation of Indian Names, pp. 12-26; Long Island
Names, pp. 14-15.
Nelson, W. The Indians of New Jersey. . . With Notices of Some
Indian Place-Names. Paterson, N. J., 1894. Pp. 168.
Personal Names of Indians of New Jersey. Paterson,
N. J. 1904. Pp. 168.
New Haven Colonial Records. Cited: N. H. Col. R.
Parsons, U. Indian Names of Places in Rhode Island.
Providence, 1861. Pp. iv., 5-32.
Pelletreau, W. S. Analysis and Meaning of Some of the Indian
Geographical Names of Suffolk County, New York.
Riverhead Weekly News, May 15, 1883. The original MS.
(pp. 19) is in possession of Wm. W. Tooker, Sag Harbor,
Centennial Celebration at Southampton, Long Island,
N. Y., July 4, 1876. Sag Harbor, 1876. Pp. 26.
Records of the Town of Smithtown, Long Island, N. Y.
etc. Huntington, N. Y., 1898. Pp. xvi., 503.
Prime, N. S. A History of Long Island, from its First Settle-
ment by Europeans to the Year 1845, etc. New York,
1845. Pp. xii., 420.
Records of the Town of Brookhaven. Cited: B. H. R.
Records of the Town of Easthampton. Cited: E. H. R.
Records of the Town of Huntington. Cited: H. R.
Records of the Town of Southampton. Cited: S. H. R.
Records of the Town of Smithtown. Cited: S. R.
Records of the Town of Southold. Cited: Southold R.
314 Indian Place-Names
^^y^^t 1 ^
Riker, J. Jr. The Annals of Newton in Queens County, New
York, etc. N. Y., 1852. Pp. 437
Ruttenber, E. M. Indian Geographical Names. In Pro-
ceedings of 'the New York State Historical Association for 1906.
Smith, E. T. Brookhaven 1665-1876. Historic Sketch of
the Town of Brookhaven. N. p. 1876. Pp. 10.
Stiles, H, R. A History of the City of Brooklyn, etc. 2 vols.
Brooklyn, 1867. Also another edition in 3 vols. Albany,
Thompson, B. F. Paper upon the Indian Names of Long
Island. Proc.N. Y. Histor. Soc., 1845 (1846), pp. 125-131.
History of Long Island. New York, 1843. 2 vols.
Trumbull, J. H. Words Derived from Indian Languages of
North America. Trans. Amer. Philol. Assoc., 1872, pp.
Indian Local Names in Rhode Island. Proc. Amer. Philol.
Assoc., 1872, pp. 19-20.
Indian Names of Places on Long Island, derived from
Esculent Roots. Mag. Amer. Hist. (N. Y.), vol. i., 1877,
Indian Names of Places, etc., in and on the Borders of
Connecticut: with Interpretations of Some of them. Hart-
ford, 1881. Pp. xiii., 93.
Natick Dictionary. Smithsonian Institution. Bureau
of American Ethnology. Bulletin 25. Washington, 1903.
Pp. xxviii. 349.
-The Composition of Indian Geographical Names, illustrated
from the Algonkin Languages. Conn. Hist. Soc. Coll., vol.
ii., 1870. Pp. 1-50.
Note. This list has been compiled by the editor from the
references in the text of Mr. Tooker, etc.
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